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Cornwall

Cornwall, located in southwestern England, is both a ceremonial and historic county. It is the traditional homeland of the Cornish people and is officially recognized as a Celtic nation. The county of Devon lies to Cornwall's east, with the River Tamar serving as a natural divider between the two. The Atlantic Ocean and the English Channel lie to Cornwall's north and west. Cornwall is the tip of the South West Peninsula, which is the westernmost point of Great Britain. Land's End is the most westerly point, and Lizard Point is the most southern. Cornwall is home to 568,210 people and spans 3,563 square kilometres. Since 2009, Cornwall Council has served as the county's unitary government. Isles of Scilly are part of the ceremonial county of Cornwall but are independently governed. Truro, Cornwall's one and only city, serves as the county seat and administrative hub.

Before becoming a duchy, Cornwall was a Brythonic kingdom. The Cornish diaspora can trace its cultural and ethnic roots back to Cornwall. The Cornish nationalist movement challenges Cornwall's current constitutional standing and advocates for devolved legislative powers for the Cornish Assembly inside the United Kingdom, on par with those enjoyed by the devolved governments of Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. A minority status under the European Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities was awarded to the Cornish people in 2014. This allowed them to be recognized as a separate ethnic group.

A stronger Roman presence in Cornwall than was previously supposed has been suggested by recent finds of Roman ruins.

As evidenced by folklore traditions derived from the Historia Regum Britanniae, after the fall of the Roman Empire, Cornwall (along with Devon, parts of Dorset and Somerset, and the Scilly Isles) became a part of the Brittonic kingdom of Dumnonia, ruled by chieftains of the Cornovii who may have included figures regarded as semi-historical or legendary, such as King Mark of Cornwall and King Arthur. The Cornovii subtribe of the Dumnonii tribe was cut off from the rest of the Brythons of Wales after the Battle of Deorham in 577 AD, and they frequently fought with the growing English kingdom of Wessex. By 838 A.D., the English had acquired most of Dumnonia, with the exception of Cornwall and Dartmoor. High water on the east bank of the River Tamar was designated as the border between English and Cornish territory by King Athelstan in 936 A.D. From the very beginning of the Middle Ages, Brythons trading over the Channel brought with them their language and culture, resulting in the parallel high medieval Breton kingdoms of Domnonée and Cornouaille with a shared Celtic Christian heritage.

Starting in the High Middle Ages, tin mining played a significant role in the Cornish economy; it saw rapid growth in the 19th century, when large copper mines were also in operation in the region. China clay extraction surpassed tin and copper mining in significance towards the middle of the nineteenth century. By the 1990s, mining had all but stopped. The mining and fishing industries declined in the nineteenth century, but the railways helped revive the agricultural and tourism sectors in the twentieth.  A 'globally significant' deposit of lithium was discovered in Cornwall in the late 2010s, sparking hopes of a mining revival to support the growing demand for electric vehicles.

The coastline and underlying geology of Cornwall are internationally renowned. Cornwall hosts a major portion of the Cornubian batholith. Many cliffs line the northern coast, providing excellent opportunities for studying geological outcrops. There are many place-names in the region that originate from the Cornish language, and the area is known for its moderate climate, long and varied coastline, wild moorland landscapes, picturesque communities, and many place-names. Wide swaths of Cornwall's coast and Bodmin Moor are designated as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.

Economy

Cornwall has a low GDP per resident and low average household income, making it one of the poorest regions in the United Kingdom. However, the county's housing market is booming in several areas, notably around the coast, thanks to the influx of retirees and vacationers with disposable income. Income per capita was 65% of the 2004 UK average. In 2004, Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly had a GDP per head that was 80.4% of the EU-27 average, well behind the UK average of 123.0%. Cornwall's (including the Isles of Scilly) standard of living in 2011 was 64% of the European average per capita, according to the most recent available data.

Cornwall's economy relied heavily on tin (and later copper) mining in the past. According to the citation above, this idea was initially mentioned by Pytheas. Since the tin trade apparently dwindled while the Romans were in control, the last ancient author to mention it was Julius Caesar.  In the Middle Ages, the tin trade flourished, becoming so important to the Kings of England that they provided special rights to the tinners. Tinners' complaints contributed to the Cornish uprising of 1497. The tin industry, however, began to deteriorate once more towards the middle of the nineteenth century. China clay manufacture, along with fishing and farming, are other primary sector businesses that have fallen since the 1960s.

As a result, the tourism industry in Cornwall now accounts for almost a quarter of the county's GDP. According to official measurements of deprivation and poverty at the district and'sub-ward' level, Cornwall is highly uneven in terms of wealth, with some places ranking among the worst in England and others among the top half. In England, the index of multiple deprivation (2006) ranked 32,482 sub-wards, or neighborhoods, from 819th (part of Penzance East) to 30,899th (part of Saltash Burraton in Caradon), with a lower number indicating more extreme disadvantage.

There are only two places in the United Kingdom classified as "less developed regions," and Cornwall is one of them. The European Commission designated it an Objective 1 for the years 2000–2006, and it has since received additional financing under the "Convergence Funding" initiative for the years 2007–2013 and the "Growth Programme" for the years 2014–2020.

Tourism

There is a significant seasonal component to Cornwall's economy, with some estimates putting the sector's contribution to the county's GDP at as much as 24 percent.

Despite its relative isolation from the rest of the United Kingdom, Cornwall's unique culture, stunning environment, and mild climate make it a popular tourist destination. Cornwall features miles of beaches and cliffs since it is surrounded by the English Channel and the Celtic Sea on three sides; the South West Coast Path makes a full circle of both coastlines. Moorland, country gardens, museums, historic and prehistoric sites, and wooded valleys are some more tourist hotspots. In a typical year, five million people go to Cornwall, most of them from the home country. There are numerous transportation options for tourists visiting Cornwall, including the Newquay Airport, the Perranporth Airfield for private planes, charters, and helicopters, and the Night Sleeper and Daily Rail Services that connect Cornwall to London and the rest of the UK.

 

England, UK Description

England is the UK's largest constituent unit, occupying more than half of the island. Despite its political, economic, and cultural legacy, England is no longer a governmental or political unit. 

With its rich soil and crisscrossing network of rivers and streams, England has been and remains a thriving agricultural economy. England became the epicenter of the global Industrial Revolution in the early 1800s, quickly rising to the top of the global industrialization rankings. Manufacturing industries in Manchester, Birmingham, and Liverpool turned raw materials into finished goods for export. London, the country's capital, became one of the world's most important cities, a hub for a global political economy. The London metropolitan area continues to be Europe's financial center and a hotbed of innovation, particularly in the fields of popular culture.

One of the most fundamental features of the English language is its diversity within a limited compass. Even England's most remote regions are accessible by car or train within a day's drive or train ride of London. Many English people identify with the regions or shires from which they are descended—for example, Yorkshire, the West Country, or the Midlands—and maintain strong ties to those regions even if they live in other parts of the country. Some differences exist, but many more, especially as England transitioned from a rural to an urban society, began to fade after 1945. The country's island location has shaped the English character, which values social harmony, social harmony, and good manners that ensure orderly relations in a densely populated landscape, among other characteristics.

During the dismantling of Britain's vast overseas empire in the mid-20th century, England suffered an identity crisis, and much attention has been paid to discussions of "Englishness"—that is, what it means to be English in a country that now has large immigrant populations from many former colonies and is far more cosmopolitan than insular. Although influenced by other cultures, English culture is distinct and difficult to define. The Lion and the Unicorn by George Orwell, a self-described "revolutionary patriot" who chronicled politics and society in the 1930s and 1940s, makes this observation. 

 

Geographical Description of England

Except for Yorkshire and Nottinghamshire in the east, England's topography is low-lying but rarely flat. The area has many rolling hillsides, with the highest elevations in the north, north-west, and southwest. Intricate underlying structures have resulted in intricate patterns in the landscape. The oldest sedimentary rocks and some igneous rocks (found in isolated granite hills) are found in Cornwall and Devon, while the most recent alluvial soils are found in the Fens of Cambridgeshire, Lincolnshire, and Norfolk. Both the sandstone and limestone bands that separate these two regions date from prehistoric times when large sections of central and southern England were submerged under warm seas. Geological forces lifted and folded some of these rocks, forming northern England's spine. Scafell Pike, England's highest point, stands at 3,210 feet (978 metres) and is part of the world's highest mountain range. The northern mountains are mostly slate, while the southern mountains are mostly lava flows. Mountain ranges have developed from the North Downs at 965 feet (294 meters) to the Cotswolds at 1,083 feet (330 meters).

The Chiltern Hills, North Yorkshire Moors, Yorkshire and Lincolnshire Wolds, and Yorkshire and Lincolnshire Wolds were rounded into distinctive plateaus with west-facing escarpments during the Pleistocene Epoch (about 2,600,000 to 11,700 years ago). A land bridge connecting Britain to the rest of Europe was engulfed as the last glacial sheet melted. The retreating glaciers left behind gravel, sand, and glacial mud, further altering the land surface. Rain, rivers, and tides, as well as subsidence, have shaped the hills and coastline of eastern England. Limestone, gritstone, and carboniferous strata plateaus are associated with major coalfields, some visible as surface outcrops.

A great example of England's geologic complexity is its cliff structure. The chalk cliffs of Dover are made up of a series of sedimentary rocks of varying ages that start at Land's End in the far southwest and end at the Isle of Wight. The English coastline is dotted with cliffs, bays, and river estuaries that add to the overall beauty of the landscape. 

England's weather is as varied as its topography. The average temperature in England, like other temperate maritime zones, is moderate, ranging from around 35 degrees Fahrenheit (2 degrees Celsius) in January to 72 degrees Fahrenheit (22 degrees Celsius) in July in the Thames river valley (32 degrees Celsius). Tacitus, the Roman historian, described it as "unpleasant" with "frequent rains and mists but no extreme cold." However, the higher elevations of England receive snow for roughly 50 days out of the year. In fact, the northwest and southwest of England are particularly "wet". These areas receive less than 30 inches (750 mm) of rain per year and are frequently subject to severe drought. Rainfall averages only 20 inches in parts of the southeast (500 mm). The weather has influenced English art and literature not only seasonally but also day-to-day and even hour-to-hour. The bumbershoot's moniker as the stereotypical English gentleman's walking stick is not accidental.

 

The Economy of England

In the 18th and 19th centuries, England's economy was primarily agricultural until the Industrial Revolution transformed it into a highly urbanized and industrialized region as a result of the Industrial Revolution. A result of the close proximity of coal and iron ore deposits, heavy industries (iron and steel, textiles, and shipbuilding) sprang up in the north-eastern counties, and they continue to thrive today. During the 1930s, the Great Depression and foreign competition both contributed to a decline in manufactured goods production and an increase in unemployment in the industrial north, which contributed to the Great Depression. Residents of these northern counties who were out of work were forced to relocate south to London and its environs. Because of urbanization and industrialization, the southeast has become dominated by industries such as automotive, chemical, electrical, and machine tool manufacturing. Despite the fact that population growth and urbanization significantly reduced farmland in England during the twentieth century, the geographical counties of Cornwall, Devon, Kent, Lincolnshire, Somerset, and North Yorkshire have retained a significant proportion of their agricultural land.

Another period of industrial decline occurred in the late twentieth century, during which coal mining was virtually phased out and job losses in industries such as iron and steel production, shipbuilding, and textile manufacturing were particularly severe. The decline of these industries had a disproportionately negative impact on the economies of the north and the Midlands, while the economies of the south remained relatively prosperous. By the turn of the twenty-first century, the service sector had taken over as the dominant sector of the English economy, with banking and other financial services, retail, distribution, media and entertainment, education, health care, and hotels and restaurants among the leading sectors.


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