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Clwyd

The county of Clwyd is located in the northeastern part of Wales and gets its name from the river of the same name. The Irish Sea can be found in the north, and the ceremonial counties of Cheshire and Shropshire in England can be found in the east and south-east, respectively. Both Powys and Gwynedd can be found to the south and west of the country. In addition to sharing a maritime border with Merseyside, Clwyd and the River Dee also have a common land boundary. Between the years of 1974 and 1996, a slightly different area had a county council, with six district councils sharing local government duties. Although the county of Clwyd was dissolved in 1996 and replaced by the counties of Conwy, Denbighshire, Flintshire, and Wrexham, the name "Clwyd" was preserved and is still used for ceremonial purposes.

The Romans established a fort near the crossing of the River Conwy in prehistoric times, and later the Normans and the Welsh fought over the area. They fortified strategically placed strongholds as they advanced and retreated, but England ultimately triumphed and Edward I conquered the country in 1282. Because of the Act of Union in 1535, Wales is now a part of England and is governed by English law.

This region of Wales relied primarily on agriculture until the Industrial Revolution, when the North Wales Coalfield was established and the area in and around the Dee estuary and Wrexham became heavily industrialized. In the middle of the nineteenth century, a railway was built from Chester to the North Wales coast, making it convenient for city dwellers in Lancashire and Cheshire to travel to the region's popular resort towns.

History

Early humans established communities in what is now North Wales. Before the Romans came to Britain, the Celtic Deceangli tribe had already established themselves in what is now Clwyd. Canovium, at a strategic fording point on the River Conwy, served as their tribal capital, and they lived in a series of hill forts along the length of the Clwydian Range. In around AD 75, the Romans conquered the area and built a fort here, allowing them to quickly subjugate all of Wales. After the Romans left Britain in AD 410, the successor states of Gwynedd and Powys ruled the region. Through a string of dynastic marriages beginning in the eighth century, Rhodri Mawr came to rule over both Gwynedd and Powys. The division of his kingdom among his three sons after his death led to continued conflict, including battles with the Welsh and raids by the Danes and Saxons.

At first, North Wales was relatively unaffected by the Norman conquest of England. This would change in the 13th century, when the city of Chester on the Dee River would serve as the starting point for a series of invasions and conquests of the country. Several fortifications were established along the Clwydian coastal plain because it served as the primary invasion route. During his successful conquest in 1282, Edward I of England constructed the first castles in North Wales, including those at Flint and Rhuddlan. Wales was then annexed by England, putting an end to the rule of the Welsh princes. From 1216 until 1536, this territory was known as the Principality of Wales. In 1301, the heir apparent to the throne of England was given the title "Prince of Wales," which included the appanage of the Crown's lands in north and west Wales. Laws in Wales Act 1535 established the permanent incorporation of Wales under the English Crown and made Welsh law subservient to English law.

Although the rural areas were relatively untouched by the Industrial Revolution, the North Wales Coalfield, and especially the Wrexham area, saw a great deal of economic growth. In the same general vicinity was the Bersham Ironworks, where industrialist John Wilkinson pioneered new methods for boring cannons and became known throughout the world.

After the monasteries were dissolved, the Williams-Wynn family of Wynnstay inherited vast estates in Clwyd that were rich in lead, tin, copper, corn, and timber.

Geography

The Welsh region of Clwyd is located in the country's uppermost northeast. It is bounded to the north by the Irish Sea, to the west and south by Gwynedd and Powys, and to the southeast and east by Shropshire and Cheshire, both of which are ceremonial counties in England; much of the eastern boundary follows the course of the River Dee and its estuary. The River Alyn, a tributary of the Dee, the River Clwyd, and the River Conwy to the west are also significant rivers in the region. Llandudno, Colwyn Bay, Colwyn, Abergele, Rhyl, and Prestatyn are just some of the popular resort towns along the northern coastline. Deeside, the coastal plain along the Dee estuary, is a heavily industrialized region of Clwyd located in the county's northeast. Both the region around Wrexham and the commuter towns near Chester are densely populated.

The Clwydian Range, a chain of mountains to the west, features a precipitous scarp slope. Moel Famau, at an elevation of 1,820 feet, is the highest peak in this range (555 m). The best farmland can be found in the broad Vale of Clwyd, which occupies much of the region's northern and central parts. The higher and rougher Denbigh Moors and Berwyn range can be found to the south. In contrast to the urbanized coastal and eastern regions, the central and western regions are largely rural, with a portion of Snowdonia National Park located there. According to data from the four constituent unitary authority areas, the population was predicted to reach 491,100 in 2007. 

From the Dee Estuary in Flintshire to Llanfairfechan, its coastline has grown as a result of boundary changes in 2003. The entirety of Flintshire and the southern portion of Denbighshire make up Clwyd. Caernarfonshire's former district of Aberconwy and Merionethshire's former Edeyrnion Rural District have both been incorporated into the county since 2003.

Economy

It is the region's underlying geology, which determines the soil types, that determines what can be grown where. Llantysilio Mountain, Ruabon Mountain, and Minera Mountain near Wrexham have all been quarried for their limestone in the Clwydian Range. Historically, the Minera Limeworks accounted for the majority of North Wales' lime production. The quarries stopped supplying stone for road construction in 1992, though. Getting the coal out in North Wales The coal industry, once a major employer in the region, declined in the second half of the twentieth century. East Clwyd's industrial sector is responsible for producing a variety of goods, including airplane parts (Airbus), automobile engines (Toyota), paper (Shotton Paper), and steel (at the port of Mostyn).

There is a long history of livestock-based agriculture in the central and western regions. The Vale of Clwyd is home to both large and small farms, as well as a thriving dairy industry.  Livestock markets can be found in many of the cities, and the agricultural sector also provides jobs in the machinery and supplies retail sector, as well as in the veterinary and feed industries, as well as construction. Farmers who have seen a decline in their incomes have discovered new sources of revenue in tourism, rural crafts, specialty food shops, farmers' markets, and value-added foods.

Attractive to tourists are the upland areas' sheep farms and small, stone-walled fields, as well as the self-catering accommodations provided by redundant farm buildings and the bed-and-breakfast options offered by farmhouses. In the middle of the nineteenth century, the arrival of the railway on the coast made excursions from Merseyside more convenient, leading to an increase in tourism. In response, many seaside towns began to provide lodging and food services to city dwellers. There has been a rise in the ownership of "second homes" and the development of vacation communities like caravan parks.

In 2016, numerous efforts are being made to improve North Wales' economy. Among these are the redevelopment of Rhyl's former seafront and amusement park, as well as the Northern Gateway project at the former Sealand RAF site on Deeside.

 

Wales, UK Description

Wales is a constituent unit of the United Kingdom that extends the island of Great Britain westward from its eastern border with the Republic of Ireland. Wales, renowned for its starkly rugged landscape, was one of Celtic Europe's most prominent political and cultural centers, and it retains aspects of its culture that are markedly different from those of its English neighbors. Wales was one of Celtic Europe's most prominent political and cultural centers, and it retains aspects of culture that are markedly different from those of its English neighbors.

Wales is a "country very strongly defended by high mountains, deep valleys, extensive woods, rivers, and marshes; insomuch that from the time the Saxons took possession of the island, the remnants of the Britons retiring into these regions could never be completely subdued either by the English or the Normans," the medieval chronicler Giraldus Cambrensis (Gerald of Wales) had topography, history, and current events in mind. When Wales was finally subdued in 1536, it was formally admitted to the kingdom of England by the Act of Union of that year. Despite the fact that many of their compatriots worked at home to preserve cultural traditions and the Welsh language, which experienced a renaissance in the late twentieth century, Welsh engineers, linguists, musicians, writers, and soldiers made significant contributions to the development of the larger British Empire. With the support of the Welsh electorate, the British government granted Wales a measure of autonomy in 1997 by establishing the Welsh Assembly, which assumed decision-making authority over the vast majority of local matters.

Despite the decline of coal mining, which had been the country's economic mainstay for much of the twentieth century, Wales had developed a diversified economy, particularly in the cities of Cardiff and Swansea, while the countryside, which had been reliant on small farming, had attracted a large number of retirees from England. During the twentieth century, tourism developed into an economic mainstay, bringing tourists to Wales' stately parks and castles, as well as cultural events celebrating the country's celebrated musical and literary traditions, many of whom were descendants of Welsh expatriates. While facing constant change, Wales continues to strive for greater independence while also establishing its own distinct identity within an increasingly integrated European Union.

 

Geographical Description of Wales

Located in the United Kingdom, Wales is bordered on the north by the River Dee and Liverpool Bay, on the west by Irish Sea, on the south by Severn Estuary and Bristol Channel, and on the east by the country of England. Anglesey (Môn), the largest island in England and Wales and the largest in the United Kingdom, is located off the northwest coast of the country and is connected to the mainland by road and rail bridges. Wales' varied coastline stretches for approximately 600 miles and is rich in natural resources (970 km). Northern and southern borders are approximately 130 miles (210 kilometers) apart, and the country's east-west width varies significantly, reaching 90 miles (145 kilometers) in the north, narrowing to approximately 40 miles (65 kilometers) in the center, and widening again to more than 100 miles (160 kilometers) in the south. 

Mountains, plateaus, and hills were deeply dissected by glaciers during the Pleistocene Epoch (approximately 2,600,000–11,700 years ago), including the north–south trending Cambrian Mountains, which are a region of plateaus and hills that are themselves fragmented by rivers. Glaciers carved much of the Welsh landscape during the Pleistocene Epoch (approximately 2,600,000–11,700 years ago) into In the south, the Brecon Beacons rise to 2,906 feet (886 metres) at Pen y Fan, and in the northwest, Snowdonia rises to 3,560 feet (1,085 metres) at Snowdon, the highest peak in Wales. Snowdonia's spectacular scenery is enhanced by stark and rugged rock formations, many of which are volcanic in origin, whereas the Beacons' scenery is characterized by softer contours and more gentle slopes. Uplands are surrounded by a series of steep-sided coastal plateaus that range in elevation from approximately 100 to 700 feet on the seaward side of the peninsula (30 to 210 metres). The sea has pounded many of them into spectacular step-like cliffs, which are now popular tourist attractions. Other plateaus give way to coastal flats that are derived from estuaries.

In traditional classifications, Wales is divided into six distinct regions: the rugged central heartland, the northern Welsh lowlands and Isle of Anglesey county, the Cardigan coast (Ceredigion county), the southwest lowlands, the industrial south of Wales, and the Welsh borderland. Located on the border of the counties of Powys, Denbighshire, and Gwynedd, the heartland spans the length of Wales, stretching from the Brecon Beacons in the south to Snowdonia in the north. It is home to two national parks named after mountain ranges in the region. The coastal lowlands, which include Gwynedd's Lleyn Peninsula (Penrhyn Lln) and Anglesey, are located to the north and northwest of the country.

The Cardigan Bay coastline, which lies to the west of the heartland in the county of Ceredigion, is characterized by numerous cliffs and coves, as well as pebble and sand-filled beaches, and is a popular tourist destination. Southwest of the heartland, the counties of Pembrokeshire and Carmarthenshire are located. The land rises eastward from St. David's Head, through moorlands and uplands, to reach a height of 1,760 feet (536 metres) in the Preseli Hills. South Wales extends south of the heartland on an enormous coalfield that has been mostly depleted over the years. The Welsh border region with England, located to the east of the heartland, is predominantly agricultural, with occasional wooded hills and mountainous moorland interspersed throughout.

 

Wales's Economy

The Welsh economy, in general, reflects the national trends and patterns of the United Kingdom as a whole. While Wales employs a greater proportion of people in agriculture and forestry, manufacturing, and government than any other country in the world, it provides fewer jobs in financial and business services than any other. Wales' gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and employment rates are significantly lower than the national average in the United Kingdom, despite the fact that foreign investment is active in Welsh manufacturing, particularly in high-technology sectors. For the purpose of improving living conditions in areas of western and southern Wales, the European Union has committed substantial development assistance to those areas.


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