Caithness Post Codes & Zip Codes List
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Caithness is one of Scotland's ancient counties, as well as a registration county and lieutenancy region.
Caithness is bounded on the west by the medieval county of Sutherland and on the east, south, and north by the ocean. Two major highways (the A9 and the A836) and a single train line cross the land boundary at right angles to the watershed that serves as its basis (the Far North Line). Caithness is connected to Orkney by ferries across the Pentland Firth, and the county seat of Wick is also home to an airport. The island of Stroma in the Pentland Firth is technically a part of Caithness.
In addition to the Caithness seat in the British Parliament, the term was also used for the Caithness earldom. While territorial boundaries aren't always consistent, the entire Caithness region is included in the Highland council area as of 2019.
Geography of Caithness
Caithness has a roughly triangular area of about 712 sq mi, stretching about 30 miles (50 km) north to south and about 30 miles (50 km) east to west (1,840 km2). Compared to the rest of Northern Scotland, the landscape here is remarkably flat. This flat profile was especially apparent before the late 20th century, when extensive swaths were planted in conifers.
Farmland, moorland, and little towns dot the landscape. North and east of the county are stunning coastlines that are home to vast, internationally significant seabird populations. Pentland Firth and North Sea waters have a rich marine life community. Sandside Bay, Thurso Bay, Dunnet Bay, Dunnet Head (Britain's northernmost point), and Duncansby Head (Britain's north-east tip) are all notable features of the north coast; Freswick Bay, Sinclairs Bay, and Wick Bay are all prominent features of the east coast. The county's lone significant island, Stroma, is located in the northern part of Pentland Firth. Inland from the coast, the Flow Country is primarily made up of open moorland and blanket bog, forming the biggest continuous area of blanket bog in Europe and stretching into Sutherland. More fertile farm and croft land divides this region along the straths (river valleys). Morven, the county's highest mountain at 706 m, may be found in the far south, where the terrain is also slightly hillier (2,316 ft).
There are several lochs in the county, however they are rather tiny compared to those found elsewhere in northern Scotland. In no particular order, these are the largest: Loch Heilen, Loch of Wester, Loch Scarmclate, Loch Watten, Loch of Toftingall, Loch Stemster, Loch Hempriggs, Loch of Yarrows, Loch Sand, Loch Rangag, Loch Ruard, Loch a Thulachan, Loch More, Loch Caluim, Loch Tuim Ghlais, Loch Scye, Loch Shurrery, Loch Calder, and Loch Mey.
Most of Caithness is thought to be underlain by ancient red sandstone that extends to depths of about 4,000 meters (10,000 feet). These are the consolidated sediments of ancient Lake Orcadie, which scientists think covered an area from Shetland to Grampian around 370 Ma during the Devonian epoch. Sediment cores have revealed fossilized fish and plant remnants. In the somewhat elevated southwestern part of the county, around Scaraben and Ord, you can see evidence of older metamorphic rock. Morven, the highest point in Caithness, is located here.
Building using sandstone has been done since Neolithic times because of how easily rock can be divided into enormous flat slabs (flagstone).
Scotland, UK Description
Scotland is the most northern of the UK's four constituent countries, occupying roughly one-third of the island. In the 5th century CE, Irish Celts settled on the west coast of Britain, naming it "Scotland." Scotland's name comes from the Latin Scotia, meaning "land of the Scots." Caledonia is a term frequently used to refer to Scotland, particularly in poetry. Caledonii was the Roman name for a tribe that lived in what is now northwest Scotland.
Scotland's harsh climate and extreme weather conditions have made it difficult for many generations to live there, but they have cherished it for its natural beauty and unique culture. During the Scottish Enlightenment, philosophers like Francis Hutcheson and Adam Smith forged important contributions to political and practical theories of progress. Scottish inventors, engineers, and businessmen like Alexander Graham Bell, James Watt, Andrew Carnegie, and John McAdam helped Scotland's influence far beyond its borders.
Scotland-England relations have been strained since the two countries united in 1707 to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain. Despite heavy English influence, Scotland has long maintained its independence, clinging to historical fact and legend to preserve national identity and the Scots dialect of English.
Geographical Description of Scotland
The Aegean, Atlantic, North, and English Channels border Scotland's southern, western, and northern borders, as well as its eastern border. The west coast is dotted with large islands ranging in size from small rocks to the massive Lewis and Harris, Skye, and Mull landmasses (sea lochs or fjords). Orkney and Shetland islands are located north of Scotland. 274 miles (441 kilometers) from Cape Wrath to the Mull of Galloway, and 154 miles wide from Applecross in the western Highlands to Buchan Ness in the eastern Grampians. Scotland's mainland has two halves: north and south (248 km). With only 30 miles of land separating the Firth of Clyde and the Firth of Forth, Scotland's two major estuarine inlets on its west and east coasts, from the sea, the vast majority of places are within 40 to 50 miles (65 to 80 kilometers) of the sea.
The Highlands are in the north, the Midland Valley (Central Lowlands) is in the middle, and the Southern Uplands are in the south. (The latter two are part of the Lowlands cultural region, which includes the former two.) Low-lying areas run the length of the Midland Valley and the US east coast. The east coast's smoother outline contrasts with the west coast's rugged outline, resulting in a topographic as well as a north-south divide. The Glen Mor (Glen Albyn) fault line separates the Highlands from the rest of the country. To the north of Glen Mor is an ancient plateau eroded into a series of peaks of similar height separated by glens carved by glaciers (valleys). The Lewisian Complex rocks have been worn down by severe glaciation to form a hummocky landscape punctuated by small lochs and protruding rocks from thin, acidic soil. The magnificent Torridonian sandstone mountains have weathered into sheer cliffs, rock terraces, and pinnacles.
The Grampian Mountains are located southeast of Glen Mor, though there are intrusions such as the Cairngorm Mountains' granitic masses. The Grampians are less rocky and rugged than the Northwest Mountains, being more rounded and grassy, with larger plateau areas. The area has some of Britain's highest mountains, including Ben Nevis (4,406 feet), which has cliffs and pinnacles that make climbing difficult (1,343 metres). Rannoch Moor, a desolate expanse of bogs and granitic rocks punctuated by narrow, deep lochs such as Rannoch and Ericht, is the most striking example (Rannoch Moor is the most striking of these). The Highland Boundary Fault runs northeast-southwest from Stonehaven, just south of Aberdeen, to Helensburgh on the River Clyde, passing through Loch Lomond, Scotland's largest freshwater body. The southern boundary of the Midland Valley is divided by a fault that runs from northeast to southwest, beginning with the Lammermuir and Moorfoot hills. It's misleading to call this part of Scotland the Lowlands because, while it's low compared to other parts of Scotland, it's not flat. Volcanic hills like the Sidlaws, Ochils, Campsies, and Pentlands dominate the landscape (579 metres). The Southern Uplands are not as high as the Highlands. Glaciation has created narrow, flat valleys that divide rolling mountains into sections. The gently sloping, grassy, and rounded hills just east of Nithsdale open up into fertile Merse farming land to the south. With time, the landscape west of Nithsdale becomes more rugged, with granitic intrusions around Loch Doon, and the soil becomes more peaty and wet. Merrick's high moorlands and hills can support a sheep farm at 2,766 feet (843 metres) above sea level. The uplands slope down to the Solway Firth's coastal plains in the south and the machair and Mull of Galloway in the west.
The Economy of Scotland
As a result of the problems that plagued many European countries during the 1970s and 1980s, including the widespread failure of heavy industries, Scotland's economy suffered greatly during this period. Unemployment became a significant issue, particularly in areas where major industries were in decline at the same time. A variety of measures were implemented by successive governments to improve the situation. Because of the extraction of North Sea oil and natural gas, as well as the development of high-technology industries and other economic sectors, Scotland's economy began to prosper during the 1980s.
Scotland's economy remains small but open, accounting for approximately 5% of the total export revenue of the United Kingdom. Aside from London and the eastern regions of England, no other region in the United Kingdom has a higher gross domestic product (GDP) per capita than the West Midlands, and its unemployment rate is relatively low. To be sure, wealth distribution in Scotland is not evenly distributed, and the average unemployment rate conceals pockets of significantly higher unemployment in specific regions and localities. Scottish economic development, education, and training are all overseen by the Scottish Parliament, despite the fact that the British government has control over macroeconomic policy in the country. This includes central government spending, interest rates, and monetary policy in Scotland.