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South Yorkshire 

The ceremonial and metropolitan county of South Yorkshire in north-central England is administered by a combined authority. With 1.34 million residents in 2011, it covers 1,552 square kilometers and boasts a population of its own (599 sq mi). Sheffield City, Barnsley City, Doncaster City, and Rotherham City are the four metropolitan boroughs that make up the county, all of which are governed by a mayor who is elected at-large.

South Yorkshire, which is situated on the eastern side of the Pennines, is surrounded by the counties of Derbyshire to the west and south-west, West Yorkshire to the north-west, North Yorkshire to the north, the East Riding of Yorkshire to the north-east, Lincolnshire to the east, and Nottinghamshire to the south-east. Sheffield, the largest city, has the tenth most people in its metropolitan area in the whole of the United Kingdom. Over half of the county's residents call the urban core home, making it the largest single land use in the western half of the county.

On April 1, 1974, South Yorkshire was officially established as a result of the Local Government Act of 1972.

It is made up of tiny portions of Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire, as well as 32 districts of the West Riding of Yorkshire (the administrative county and four independent county boroughs). In 1986, South Yorkshire County Council was disbanded, and its metropolitan boroughs became unitary authorities. However, South Yorkshire as a metropolitan county still exists in law.

South Yorkshire is a ceremonial county, hence it has an official Lord Lieutenant and a High Sheriff. Barnsley, located roughly in the middle of the two metropolitan areas, is member of both the Sheffield City Region LEP and the Leeds City Region.

Doncaster, South Yorkshire, is the county's second-largest city after Sheffield, which also attained city status in 2022. If this happens, Yorkshire will have two cities (Doncaster and Sheffield) and two municipalities (Barnsley and Rotherham).

Geography of South Yorkshire

Derbyshire, West Yorkshire, North Yorkshire, the East Riding of Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, and Nottinghamshire all share borders with the metropolitan county. The Pennines and their foothills rise in the western part of the county and slope gently eastward into the Humberhead Levels, giving the county its distinctive topography. The county is situated on the carboniferous rocks of the Yorkshire coalfield on the outer Pennine margins, giving rise to a varied topography of hills, escarpments, and vast valleys. There is much proof of both recent and long-ago industrialization in this terrain. Numerous mine structures, old spoil piles, and steel mills may be seen in this area. Cityscapes, abandoned factories, and open fields all coexist in this landscape. Although certain elements of the pre-industrial landscape and semi-natural vegetation still exist, ribbon developments along transit arteries such as canal, road, and rail are important aspects of the area. West of the county, the Pennines are mostly contained within the Peak District National Park and feature carboniferous rocks, with millstone grit sandstones of the Dark Peak rising from the Yorkshire coalfield and the landscape being predominantly moorland plateaus and gritstone margins. Many steep valleys characterize the inner Pennine margins between the Dark Peak and the Yorkshire coalfield, and the terrain changes from uplands and rural to lowlands and urban as one moves eastward across the county. The Dearne, the Rother, and the Don are all important rivers that run through the region. To the east, around Doncaster, the land becomes flatter as the eastward-dipping carboniferous rocks of the coalfield are covered by the lacustrine deposits of the Humberhead Levels. Since this region is mostly beyond the previous glacier's limiting latitudes, there is surprisingly little evidence of ice here.

Economy of South Yorkshire

The European Regional Development Fund has prioritized South Yorkshire since it is one of the least prosperous regions in Western Europe. South Yorkshire's regional GVA at current base prices is depicted here as a chart, with values in the millions of British Pounds. 

However, the county's service industry has been booming as of late. Doncaster was named best small European city for investment in the FDI European Cities and Regions of the Future 2022/23 Awards.

 

England, UK Description

England is the UK's largest constituent unit, occupying more than half of the island. Despite its political, economic, and cultural legacy, England is no longer a governmental or political unit. 

With its rich soil and crisscrossing network of rivers and streams, England has been and remains a thriving agricultural economy. England became the epicenter of the global Industrial Revolution in the early 1800s, quickly rising to the top of the global industrialization rankings. Manufacturing industries in Manchester, Birmingham, and Liverpool turned raw materials into finished goods for export. London, the country's capital, became one of the world's most important cities, a hub for a global political economy. The London metropolitan area continues to be Europe's financial center and a hotbed of innovation, particularly in the fields of popular culture.

One of the most fundamental features of the English language is its diversity within a limited compass. Even England's most remote regions are accessible by car or train within a day's drive or train ride of London. Many English people identify with the regions or shires from which they are descended—for example, Yorkshire, the West Country, or the Midlands—and maintain strong ties to those regions even if they live in other parts of the country. Some differences exist, but many more, especially as England transitioned from a rural to an urban society, began to fade after 1945. The country's island location has shaped the English character, which values social harmony, social harmony, and good manners that ensure orderly relations in a densely populated landscape, among other characteristics.

During the dismantling of Britain's vast overseas empire in the mid-20th century, England suffered an identity crisis, and much attention has been paid to discussions of "Englishness"—that is, what it means to be English in a country that now has large immigrant populations from many former colonies and is far more cosmopolitan than insular. Although influenced by other cultures, English culture is distinct and difficult to define. The Lion and the Unicorn by George Orwell, a self-described "revolutionary patriot" who chronicled politics and society in the 1930s and 1940s, makes this observation. 

 

Geographical Description of England

Except for Yorkshire and Nottinghamshire in the east, England's topography is low-lying but rarely flat. The area has many rolling hillsides, with the highest elevations in the north, north-west, and southwest. Intricate underlying structures have resulted in intricate patterns in the landscape. The oldest sedimentary rocks and some igneous rocks (found in isolated granite hills) are found in Cornwall and Devon, while the most recent alluvial soils are found in the Fens of Cambridgeshire, Lincolnshire, and Norfolk. Both the sandstone and limestone bands that separate these two regions date from prehistoric times when large sections of central and southern England were submerged under warm seas. Geological forces lifted and folded some of these rocks, forming northern England's spine. Scafell Pike, England's highest point, stands at 3,210 feet (978 metres) and is part of the world's highest mountain range. The northern mountains are mostly slate, while the southern mountains are mostly lava flows. Mountain ranges have developed from the North Downs at 965 feet (294 meters) to the Cotswolds at 1,083 feet (330 meters).

The Chiltern Hills, North Yorkshire Moors, Yorkshire and Lincolnshire Wolds, and Yorkshire and Lincolnshire Wolds were rounded into distinctive plateaus with west-facing escarpments during the Pleistocene Epoch (about 2,600,000 to 11,700 years ago). A land bridge connecting Britain to the rest of Europe was engulfed as the last glacial sheet melted. The retreating glaciers left behind gravel, sand, and glacial mud, further altering the land surface. Rain, rivers, and tides, as well as subsidence, have shaped the hills and coastline of eastern England. Limestone, gritstone, and carboniferous strata plateaus are associated with major coalfields, some visible as surface outcrops.

A great example of England's geologic complexity is its cliff structure. The chalk cliffs of Dover are made up of a series of sedimentary rocks of varying ages that start at Land's End in the far southwest and end at the Isle of Wight. The English coastline is dotted with cliffs, bays, and river estuaries that add to the overall beauty of the landscape. 

England's weather is as varied as its topography. The average temperature in England, like other temperate maritime zones, is moderate, ranging from around 35 degrees Fahrenheit (2 degrees Celsius) in January to 72 degrees Fahrenheit (22 degrees Celsius) in July in the Thames river valley (32 degrees Celsius). Tacitus, the Roman historian, described it as "unpleasant" with "frequent rains and mists but no extreme cold." However, the higher elevations of England receive snow for roughly 50 days out of the year. In fact, the northwest and southwest of England are particularly "wet". These areas receive less than 30 inches (750 mm) of rain per year and are frequently subject to severe drought. Rainfall averages only 20 inches in parts of the southeast (500 mm). The weather has influenced English art and literature not only seasonally but also day-to-day and even hour-to-hour. The bumbershoot's moniker as the stereotypical English gentleman's walking stick is not accidental.

 

The Economy of England

In the 18th and 19th centuries, England's economy was primarily agricultural until the Industrial Revolution transformed it into a highly urbanized and industrialized region as a result of the Industrial Revolution. A result of the close proximity of coal and iron ore deposits, heavy industries (iron and steel, textiles, and shipbuilding) sprang up in the north-eastern counties, and they continue to thrive today. During the 1930s, the Great Depression and foreign competition both contributed to a decline in manufactured goods production and an increase in unemployment in the industrial north, which contributed to the Great Depression. Residents of these northern counties who were out of work were forced to relocate south to London and its environs. Because of urbanization and industrialization, the southeast has become dominated by industries such as automotive, chemical, electrical, and machine tool manufacturing. Despite the fact that population growth and urbanization significantly reduced farmland in England during the twentieth century, the geographical counties of Cornwall, Devon, Kent, Lincolnshire, Somerset, and North Yorkshire have retained a significant proportion of their agricultural land.

Another period of industrial decline occurred in the late twentieth century, during which coal mining was virtually phased out and job losses in industries such as iron and steel production, shipbuilding, and textile manufacturing were particularly severe. The decline of these industries had a disproportionately negative impact on the economies of the north and the Midlands, while the economies of the south remained relatively prosperous. By the turn of the twenty-first century, the service sector had taken over as the dominant sector of the English economy, with banking and other financial services, retail, distribution, media and entertainment, education, health care, and hotels and restaurants among the leading sectors.


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