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Nottinghamshire

In the East Midlands of England, Nottinghamshire is a landlocked county that shares borders with South Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Leicestershire, and Derbyshire to the north, west, and south, respectively. Although Nottingham is the traditional county town, the county council is located at West Bridgford inside the borough of Rushcliffe, at a site that looks across the River Trent at Nottingham.

Ashfield, Bassetlaw, Broxtowe, Gedling, Mansfield, Newark and Sherwood, and Rushcliffe are the districts that make up Nottinghamshire. Between 1974 and 1998, the county of Nottinghamshire included the city of Nottingham; however, since 1998, the city has been a unitary authority while still being considered a part of Nottinghamshire for ceremonial purposes.

The population of the county was calculated to be 785,800 in 2017. The Greater Nottingham metropolitan area is home to more than half of the county's residents (which continues into Derbyshire). Nearly 650,000 people make up the conurbation, yet fewer than half of them actually call the city proper home.

Geography of Nottinghamshire

Coal measures up to 900 meters (3,000 feet) thick are present in the northern part of Nottinghamshire, as are similar measures in neighboring Derbyshire and South Yorkshire. The area around Eakring is an active oilfield. There are sandstones and limestones on top of these in the west, and clay in the east. The county's northern half is located on the lacustrine plain known as Humberhead Levels. Sherwood Forest and the surrounding area in the county's center and south-west are surrounded by rolling hills covered in old oak woods. The Trent, Idle, Erewash, and Soar are the major rivers. Many streams from Sherwood Forest come together near Misterton to form the Trent, which is fed by the Soar, the Erewash, and the Idle. The county of Nottingham has a few notable elevations, the highest being a 205-meter (673-foot) point immediately north of Newtonwood Lane on the border with Derbyshire and the second-highest being a 204-meter (750-foot) spoil heap left by the defunct Silverhill colliery (669 feet). Below Cromwell Lock, the Trent River becomes tidal, making the lowest point Peat Carr to the east of Blaxton. 

The Pennines to the west provide a protective canopy, limiting yearly precipitation in Nottinghamshire to between 641 and 740 millimeters (25 and 29 inches).

Countywide averages range from 8.8 to 10.1 degrees Celsius (48–50 degrees Fahrenheit).  Average annual sunlight hours in the county are between 1321 and 1470.

The Business Sector and the Economy of Nottinghamshire

Coal mining in the Leen Valley and manufacturing have long been pillars of the local economy. Nottingham in particular has become a byword for the lace industry in the area since since local inventor William Lee came up with the knitting frame. 

In 1998, Nottinghamshire had a GDP of £12,023 million and a GDP per capita of £12,000. In comparison, the East Midlands, England, and the United Kingdom all have a GDP per capita of £11,848 while England's is £12,845 and the United Kingdom's is £12,548. GDP per resident in Nottingham was £17,373, whereas in North Nottinghamshire it was £10,176, and in South Nottinghamshire it was £8,448. [14] Joblessness in the UK was 4.7% in October 2005, 4.4% in the East Midlands, and 2.4% in the Nottingham commuter belt area.

 

England, UK Description

England is the UK's largest constituent unit, occupying more than half of the island. Despite its political, economic, and cultural legacy, England is no longer a governmental or political unit. 

With its rich soil and crisscrossing network of rivers and streams, England has been and remains a thriving agricultural economy. England became the epicenter of the global Industrial Revolution in the early 1800s, quickly rising to the top of the global industrialization rankings. Manufacturing industries in Manchester, Birmingham, and Liverpool turned raw materials into finished goods for export. London, the country's capital, became one of the world's most important cities, a hub for a global political economy. The London metropolitan area continues to be Europe's financial center and a hotbed of innovation, particularly in the fields of popular culture.

One of the most fundamental features of the English language is its diversity within a limited compass. Even England's most remote regions are accessible by car or train within a day's drive or train ride of London. Many English people identify with the regions or shires from which they are descended—for example, Yorkshire, the West Country, or the Midlands—and maintain strong ties to those regions even if they live in other parts of the country. Some differences exist, but many more, especially as England transitioned from a rural to an urban society, began to fade after 1945. The country's island location has shaped the English character, which values social harmony, social harmony, and good manners that ensure orderly relations in a densely populated landscape, among other characteristics.

During the dismantling of Britain's vast overseas empire in the mid-20th century, England suffered an identity crisis, and much attention has been paid to discussions of "Englishness"—that is, what it means to be English in a country that now has large immigrant populations from many former colonies and is far more cosmopolitan than insular. Although influenced by other cultures, English culture is distinct and difficult to define. The Lion and the Unicorn by George Orwell, a self-described "revolutionary patriot" who chronicled politics and society in the 1930s and 1940s, makes this observation. 

 

Geographical Description of England

Except for Yorkshire and Nottinghamshire in the east, England's topography is low-lying but rarely flat. The area has many rolling hillsides, with the highest elevations in the north, north-west, and southwest. Intricate underlying structures have resulted in intricate patterns in the landscape. The oldest sedimentary rocks and some igneous rocks (found in isolated granite hills) are found in Cornwall and Devon, while the most recent alluvial soils are found in the Fens of Cambridgeshire, Lincolnshire, and Norfolk. Both the sandstone and limestone bands that separate these two regions date from prehistoric times when large sections of central and southern England were submerged under warm seas. Geological forces lifted and folded some of these rocks, forming northern England's spine. Scafell Pike, England's highest point, stands at 3,210 feet (978 metres) and is part of the world's highest mountain range. The northern mountains are mostly slate, while the southern mountains are mostly lava flows. Mountain ranges have developed from the North Downs at 965 feet (294 meters) to the Cotswolds at 1,083 feet (330 meters).

The Chiltern Hills, North Yorkshire Moors, Yorkshire and Lincolnshire Wolds, and Yorkshire and Lincolnshire Wolds were rounded into distinctive plateaus with west-facing escarpments during the Pleistocene Epoch (about 2,600,000 to 11,700 years ago). A land bridge connecting Britain to the rest of Europe was engulfed as the last glacial sheet melted. The retreating glaciers left behind gravel, sand, and glacial mud, further altering the land surface. Rain, rivers, and tides, as well as subsidence, have shaped the hills and coastline of eastern England. Limestone, gritstone, and carboniferous strata plateaus are associated with major coalfields, some visible as surface outcrops.

A great example of England's geologic complexity is its cliff structure. The chalk cliffs of Dover are made up of a series of sedimentary rocks of varying ages that start at Land's End in the far southwest and end at the Isle of Wight. The English coastline is dotted with cliffs, bays, and river estuaries that add to the overall beauty of the landscape. 

England's weather is as varied as its topography. The average temperature in England, like other temperate maritime zones, is moderate, ranging from around 35 degrees Fahrenheit (2 degrees Celsius) in January to 72 degrees Fahrenheit (22 degrees Celsius) in July in the Thames river valley (32 degrees Celsius). Tacitus, the Roman historian, described it as "unpleasant" with "frequent rains and mists but no extreme cold." However, the higher elevations of England receive snow for roughly 50 days out of the year. In fact, the northwest and southwest of England are particularly "wet". These areas receive less than 30 inches (750 mm) of rain per year and are frequently subject to severe drought. Rainfall averages only 20 inches in parts of the southeast (500 mm). The weather has influenced English art and literature not only seasonally but also day-to-day and even hour-to-hour. The bumbershoot's moniker as the stereotypical English gentleman's walking stick is not accidental.

 

The Economy of England

In the 18th and 19th centuries, England's economy was primarily agricultural until the Industrial Revolution transformed it into a highly urbanized and industrialized region as a result of the Industrial Revolution. A result of the close proximity of coal and iron ore deposits, heavy industries (iron and steel, textiles, and shipbuilding) sprang up in the north-eastern counties, and they continue to thrive today. During the 1930s, the Great Depression and foreign competition both contributed to a decline in manufactured goods production and an increase in unemployment in the industrial north, which contributed to the Great Depression. Residents of these northern counties who were out of work were forced to relocate south to London and its environs. Because of urbanization and industrialization, the southeast has become dominated by industries such as automotive, chemical, electrical, and machine tool manufacturing. Despite the fact that population growth and urbanization significantly reduced farmland in England during the twentieth century, the geographical counties of Cornwall, Devon, Kent, Lincolnshire, Somerset, and North Yorkshire have retained a significant proportion of their agricultural land.

Another period of industrial decline occurred in the late twentieth century, during which coal mining was virtually phased out and job losses in industries such as iron and steel production, shipbuilding, and textile manufacturing were particularly severe. The decline of these industries had a disproportionately negative impact on the economies of the north and the Midlands, while the economies of the south remained relatively prosperous. By the turn of the twenty-first century, the service sector had taken over as the dominant sector of the English economy, with banking and other financial services, retail, distribution, media and entertainment, education, health care, and hotels and restaurants among the leading sectors.


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