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County Northumberland is one of two English counties that share a border with Scotland and is located in the country's far northeast. Alnwick Castle, Bamburgh Castle, Hadrian's Wall, and Hexham Abbey are just a few of the many famous landmarks in the county.

It is landlocked on three sides, sharing boundaries with the counties of Cumbria to the west, County Durham and Tyne and Wear to the south, and the Scottish Borders region to the north. The North Sea, the fourth side, extends eastward for a total of 103 km (64 mi) of coastline. Northumberland National Park occupies a sizable portion of this rural county, which consists primarily of moorland and farmland. Several pivotal conflicts with Scotland took place here.

The Business Sector and the Economy of Northumberland

Some international businesses, such as Coca-Cola, MSD, GE, and Drager, control the majority of Northumberland's industrial sector.

Northumberland relies heavily on revenue and employment opportunities generated by tourists. In the early 2000s, the county saw an annual influx of 1.16 million tourists, with 1.12 million being British and 50,000 being foreigners who spent a combined £162 million.

There was coal mining in the county during the Tudor era. There are still coal mines in operation today, and many of them are open pit miners. A proposal to build an open-pit mine at Halton Lea Gate, close to Lambley, was approved by the local planning commission in January 2014. 

Egger (UK) Limited, headquartered in Hexham, is a major employer in the Northumberland region.

Health care, pharmaceuticals, and biotechnology

The county's economy is heavily dependent on the pharmaceutical, healthcare, and rising medical biotechnology sectors.

Aesica Pharmaceuticals, Arcinova, MSD, Piramal Healthcare, Procter & Gamble, Shire Plc (formerly SCM Pharma), Shasun Pharma Solutions, Specials Laboratory, and Thermo Fisher Scientific are just a few of the companies that make up the roughly 11,000-worker Northeast of England Process Industry Cluster (NEPIC). Cambridge Bioresearch, GlaxoSmithKline, Fujifilm Diosynth Biotech, Leica Bio, Data Trial, High Force Research, Non-Linear Dynamics, and Immuno Diagnostic Systems are also part of the cluster (IDS). Major pharmaceutical production and research facilities can be found in the North Carolina municipalities of Alnwick, Cramlington, Morpeth, and Prudhoe. 

Northumbria University and Newcastle University are the two best universities in the area. Pre-clinical research, clinical research, pilot-scale production, full-scale production of active pharmaceutical ingredients/intermediates, formulation, packaging, and distribution are all part of the local industry. 

Culture of Northumberland

Northumberland is home to customs that are unique to the region and to England as a whole. The Northumbrian smallpipe is a sweet chamber instrument, very different from the Scottish bagpipe, and is performed by rappers, among other cultures. The Northumbrian tartan or check is sometimes referred to as the Shepherd's Tartan in Scotland. Due to its historical ties to the Lowlands of Scotland and the significant Irish population on Tyneside, traditional Northumbrian music is more comparable to that of those countries than to the rest of England.

Since the late Middle Ages, the region's border ballads have been well-known. Most of the minstrels who sang the border ballads in London and elsewhere in the 15th and 16th centuries were to the North, according to Thomas Percy, whose classic Reliques of Ancient English Poetry appeared in 1765. The 19th-century efforts of people like Sir Walter Scott spread the songs much further. William Morris thought these were the best poetry ever written, and Algernon Charles Swinburne could recite them all by heart.

Popular among these is "Chevy Chase," which recounts the Earl of Northumberland's determination to "maugre the doughty Douglas" by hunting for three days across the Border. "I never heard the old song of Percy and Douglas that I found not my heart moved more than with a trumpet," the great Elizabethan courtier, soldier, and poet Sir Philip Sidney famously stated of it. Ben Jonson once remarked that if he could have written "Chevy Chase," he would have done so for nothing.

Northumberland, like the rest of the North East, share many cultural traits with the Lowlands of Scotland rather than those of the South of England. One factor is that these areas have a same language and cultural heritage with the old Anglian Kingdom of Northumbria. Many words from Old English, such as bairn meaning "child," are not present in other varieties of contemporary English. 

Whatever the case may be, areas immediately to the north and south of the border have historically shared certain parts of history and legacy, leading some to believe that the Anglo-Scottish boundary is primarily political rather than cultural in nature.

The Northumbrian Language Society was established to protect the Northumbrian languages (Pitmatic and others) and to showcase local artists and performers in an effort to increase public knowledge of Northumberland's rich cultural heritage.

The bloody cranesbill (Geranium sanguineum) is the official flower of the English county of Northumberland, and the HMS Northumberland is the namesake ship of the Royal Navy unit of that name.


England, UK Description

England is the UK's largest constituent unit, occupying more than half of the island. Despite its political, economic, and cultural legacy, England is no longer a governmental or political unit. 

With its rich soil and crisscrossing network of rivers and streams, England has been and remains a thriving agricultural economy. England became the epicenter of the global Industrial Revolution in the early 1800s, quickly rising to the top of the global industrialization rankings. Manufacturing industries in Manchester, Birmingham, and Liverpool turned raw materials into finished goods for export. London, the country's capital, became one of the world's most important cities, a hub for a global political economy. The London metropolitan area continues to be Europe's financial center and a hotbed of innovation, particularly in the fields of popular culture.

One of the most fundamental features of the English language is its diversity within a limited compass. Even England's most remote regions are accessible by car or train within a day's drive or train ride of London. Many English people identify with the regions or shires from which they are descended—for example, Yorkshire, the West Country, or the Midlands—and maintain strong ties to those regions even if they live in other parts of the country. Some differences exist, but many more, especially as England transitioned from a rural to an urban society, began to fade after 1945. The country's island location has shaped the English character, which values social harmony, social harmony, and good manners that ensure orderly relations in a densely populated landscape, among other characteristics.

During the dismantling of Britain's vast overseas empire in the mid-20th century, England suffered an identity crisis, and much attention has been paid to discussions of "Englishness"—that is, what it means to be English in a country that now has large immigrant populations from many former colonies and is far more cosmopolitan than insular. Although influenced by other cultures, English culture is distinct and difficult to define. The Lion and the Unicorn by George Orwell, a self-described "revolutionary patriot" who chronicled politics and society in the 1930s and 1940s, makes this observation. 


Geographical Description of England

Except for Yorkshire and Nottinghamshire in the east, England's topography is low-lying but rarely flat. The area has many rolling hillsides, with the highest elevations in the north, north-west, and southwest. Intricate underlying structures have resulted in intricate patterns in the landscape. The oldest sedimentary rocks and some igneous rocks (found in isolated granite hills) are found in Cornwall and Devon, while the most recent alluvial soils are found in the Fens of Cambridgeshire, Lincolnshire, and Norfolk. Both the sandstone and limestone bands that separate these two regions date from prehistoric times when large sections of central and southern England were submerged under warm seas. Geological forces lifted and folded some of these rocks, forming northern England's spine. Scafell Pike, England's highest point, stands at 3,210 feet (978 metres) and is part of the world's highest mountain range. The northern mountains are mostly slate, while the southern mountains are mostly lava flows. Mountain ranges have developed from the North Downs at 965 feet (294 meters) to the Cotswolds at 1,083 feet (330 meters).

The Chiltern Hills, North Yorkshire Moors, Yorkshire and Lincolnshire Wolds, and Yorkshire and Lincolnshire Wolds were rounded into distinctive plateaus with west-facing escarpments during the Pleistocene Epoch (about 2,600,000 to 11,700 years ago). A land bridge connecting Britain to the rest of Europe was engulfed as the last glacial sheet melted. The retreating glaciers left behind gravel, sand, and glacial mud, further altering the land surface. Rain, rivers, and tides, as well as subsidence, have shaped the hills and coastline of eastern England. Limestone, gritstone, and carboniferous strata plateaus are associated with major coalfields, some visible as surface outcrops.

A great example of England's geologic complexity is its cliff structure. The chalk cliffs of Dover are made up of a series of sedimentary rocks of varying ages that start at Land's End in the far southwest and end at the Isle of Wight. The English coastline is dotted with cliffs, bays, and river estuaries that add to the overall beauty of the landscape. 

England's weather is as varied as its topography. The average temperature in England, like other temperate maritime zones, is moderate, ranging from around 35 degrees Fahrenheit (2 degrees Celsius) in January to 72 degrees Fahrenheit (22 degrees Celsius) in July in the Thames river valley (32 degrees Celsius). Tacitus, the Roman historian, described it as "unpleasant" with "frequent rains and mists but no extreme cold." However, the higher elevations of England receive snow for roughly 50 days out of the year. In fact, the northwest and southwest of England are particularly "wet". These areas receive less than 30 inches (750 mm) of rain per year and are frequently subject to severe drought. Rainfall averages only 20 inches in parts of the southeast (500 mm). The weather has influenced English art and literature not only seasonally but also day-to-day and even hour-to-hour. The bumbershoot's moniker as the stereotypical English gentleman's walking stick is not accidental.


The Economy of England

In the 18th and 19th centuries, England's economy was primarily agricultural until the Industrial Revolution transformed it into a highly urbanized and industrialized region as a result of the Industrial Revolution. A result of the close proximity of coal and iron ore deposits, heavy industries (iron and steel, textiles, and shipbuilding) sprang up in the north-eastern counties, and they continue to thrive today. During the 1930s, the Great Depression and foreign competition both contributed to a decline in manufactured goods production and an increase in unemployment in the industrial north, which contributed to the Great Depression. Residents of these northern counties who were out of work were forced to relocate south to London and its environs. Because of urbanization and industrialization, the southeast has become dominated by industries such as automotive, chemical, electrical, and machine tool manufacturing. Despite the fact that population growth and urbanization significantly reduced farmland in England during the twentieth century, the geographical counties of Cornwall, Devon, Kent, Lincolnshire, Somerset, and North Yorkshire have retained a significant proportion of their agricultural land.

Another period of industrial decline occurred in the late twentieth century, during which coal mining was virtually phased out and job losses in industries such as iron and steel production, shipbuilding, and textile manufacturing were particularly severe. The decline of these industries had a disproportionately negative impact on the economies of the north and the Midlands, while the economies of the south remained relatively prosperous. By the turn of the twenty-first century, the service sector had taken over as the dominant sector of the English economy, with banking and other financial services, retail, distribution, media and entertainment, education, health care, and hotels and restaurants among the leading sectors.

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