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Hertfordshire

One of the home counties in southern England, Hertfordshire is a popular place to live. It is bounded by Cambridgeshire and Bedfordshire to the north, Essex to the east, Greater London to the south, and Buckinghamshire to the west. It is considered part of the East of England statistical region for official purposes.

There are exactly 634.366 square miles in Hertfordshire (1,643.00 km2). Both the county's coat of arms and its flag feature images of a hart (stag) and a ford, the origins of which can be traced back to the name of the county town, Hertford. Hertford, a former market town and the present county town, is home to Hertfordshire County Council. Watford is by far the most populous city in the area.

Letchworth, a model garden city since 1903, was the first to grow under the New Towns Act of 1946 in postwar Britain.

Hemel Hempstead, Stevenage, Watford, and St. Albans (the county's lone city) each had between 50,000 and 100,000 persons in 2013. The total population of Hertfordshire was approximately 1,140,700 in 2013. Around 47,000 people call the nearby areas of Welwyn Garden City, Hoddesdon, and Cheshunt home.

Northern and western areas feature greater elevations, with the Chilterns at Tring reaching over 800 feet (240 meters) above sea level. Both the River Lea and the River Colne, which flow south and are connected by canals in the county's upper valleys, serve as the county's primary waterways and serve as the county's economic and cultural focal points. Much of the unbuilt area in Hertfordshire is designated as a green belt to prevent urban sprawl. In recent years, the service industry has dominated the county's economy. Access to London, the Midlands, and the Northern United Kingdom is facilitated by the county of Hertfordshire's excellent transportation infrastructure.

Geography

You'll find Hertfordshire to the north of London, and it's considered a part of the East of England region. Essex is to the east, Buckinghamshire is to the west, while Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire are to the north. Throughout London, a sizeable percentage of the population makes the daily trek into the city center.

To a large extent, the boundaries of Hertfordshire have been set since the Counties (Detached Parts) Act 1844 abolished exclaves, with minor adjustments made in 1965 under the London Government Act 1963, when East Barnet Urban District and Barnet Urban District were abolished and their area was transferred to form part of the present-day London Borough of Barnet.

Along the Ridgeway long distance national path, between Hastoe near Tring and Drayton Beauchamp, Buckinghamshire reaches a peak at 244 m (801 ft).

East Hertfordshire had the lowest population density (290 persons per km2) of the county's ten districts in the 2011 census, while Watford had the highest (4210 per km2). Hertfordshire's overall population (about 1 million) is bigger than that of Bedfordshire and Buckinghamshire, two counties to the north and west, despite the absence of major urban centers on par with Luton and Milton Keynes (all of which have populations of over 200,000).

Flowing from its source at Harpenden, the River Lea passes through the boroughs of Wheathampstead, Welwyn Garden City, Hertford, Ware, and Broxbourne on its way to Cheshunt and the Thames. The Chiltern Hills encompass Tring, Berkhamsted, and the Ashridge estate in the county's westernmost region, making it the hilliest part of the county. This designated scenic area begins in the north near Hitchin and extends south into Berkshire and Oxfordshire.

Central, northern, and southern Hertfordshire are home to many of the county's largest cities and towns, including Watford, Hemel Hempstead, Kings Langley, Rickmansworth, St. Albans, Harpenden, Radlett, Borehamwood, Potters Bar, Stevenage, Hatfield, Welwyn and Welwyn Garden City, Hitchin, Letchworth, and Baldock. These are all relatively sizable communities, ranging from a few thousand to a few hundred thousand people, and they range from postwar boomtowns to older, more established areas. St. Albans is a great example of a historical village because it has a Norman cathedral and monastery and Roman ruins from the neighbouring city of Verulamium. New urban development in the wake of World War II coexists with Stevenage's earlier, more rural history. This historic district may be found in Stevenage's "Old Town," which is filled with stores and buildings from before World War II. Historic buildings from the Tudor and Stuart periods can be found in the heart of Hitchin, which is surrounded by newer buildings.

In eastern Hertfordshire, you'll find a lot of farmland and little towns, as well as some larger ones. Major cities in the area include Hertford, Ware, and the county seat of Hertford in addition to smaller ones like Royston, Buntingford, and Bishops Stortford. Compared to the western part of Hertfordshire, the landscape in the east is flatter, with fewer hills and more noticeable rivers like the Stort. Starting its course in Essex, this waterway meets up with the Lea not far from Ware. The River Colne is the most important river in the western section of the county, alongside the Lea and the Stort. From its location south of Watford and Radlett, this system/drainage area extends into both London and Buckinghamshire to the south.

The Pasqueflower, a purple star-shaped flower with golden filaments, is unofficially recognized as one of the indigenous county flowers of the area.

Economy

MBDA, based in Stevenage (a subsidiary of: BAE Systems, Airbus, and Finmeccanica), is responsible for missile development. Airbus' (Defense & Space) satellites are made in the same city.

It was in Hatfield that de Havilland built the first passenger jet airliner, the Comet. A business park and the University of Hertfordshire's new campus now occupy the former airport. Some of the most prominent e-commerce companies in the world, including EE and Computacenter, as well as Ocado, are all housed on this massive employment website.

Welwyn Garden City is home to several major businesses, including Roche UK and its pharmaceutical division, Tesco UK and its UK Cereal Partners facility (subsidiary of the Swiss Hoffman-La Roche). Both Ware and Stevenage are home to GlaxoSmithKline facilities.

In St. Albans, you'll find the headquarters of the National Pharmacy Association (NPA), the professional group representing the pharmacy industry in the United Kingdom.

Pure, a manufacturer of DAB digital radios, has an office and production facility in Kings Langley.

There are many well-known businesses headquartered in Watford; some examples are J.D. Wetherspoon, Camelot Group, Bathstore, and Caversham Finance (BrightHouse). Hilton Worldwide, TotalEnergies, TK Maxx, Costco, JJ Kavanagh & Sons, Vinci, and Beko all have their UK headquarters in the city. The hotel hosted the 2006 and 2013 World Golf Championships and the Bilderberg Conference, respectively. Since the early 2000s, Warner Bros. has owned and operated Warner Studios in Leavesden, Watford, as their primary UK location.

 

England, UK Description

England is the UK's largest constituent unit, occupying more than half of the island. Despite its political, economic, and cultural legacy, England is no longer a governmental or political unit. 

With its rich soil and crisscrossing network of rivers and streams, England has been and remains a thriving agricultural economy. England became the epicenter of the global Industrial Revolution in the early 1800s, quickly rising to the top of the global industrialization rankings. Manufacturing industries in Manchester, Birmingham, and Liverpool turned raw materials into finished goods for export. London, the country's capital, became one of the world's most important cities, a hub for a global political economy. The London metropolitan area continues to be Europe's financial center and a hotbed of innovation, particularly in the fields of popular culture.

One of the most fundamental features of the English language is its diversity within a limited compass. Even England's most remote regions are accessible by car or train within a day's drive or train ride of London. Many English people identify with the regions or shires from which they are descended—for example, Yorkshire, the West Country, or the Midlands—and maintain strong ties to those regions even if they live in other parts of the country. Some differences exist, but many more, especially as England transitioned from a rural to an urban society, began to fade after 1945. The country's island location has shaped the English character, which values social harmony, social harmony, and good manners that ensure orderly relations in a densely populated landscape, among other characteristics.

During the dismantling of Britain's vast overseas empire in the mid-20th century, England suffered an identity crisis, and much attention has been paid to discussions of "Englishness"—that is, what it means to be English in a country that now has large immigrant populations from many former colonies and is far more cosmopolitan than insular. Although influenced by other cultures, English culture is distinct and difficult to define. The Lion and the Unicorn by George Orwell, a self-described "revolutionary patriot" who chronicled politics and society in the 1930s and 1940s, makes this observation. 

 

Geographical Description of England

Except for Yorkshire and Nottinghamshire in the east, England's topography is low-lying but rarely flat. The area has many rolling hillsides, with the highest elevations in the north, north-west, and southwest. Intricate underlying structures have resulted in intricate patterns in the landscape. The oldest sedimentary rocks and some igneous rocks (found in isolated granite hills) are found in Cornwall and Devon, while the most recent alluvial soils are found in the Fens of Cambridgeshire, Lincolnshire, and Norfolk. Both the sandstone and limestone bands that separate these two regions date from prehistoric times when large sections of central and southern England were submerged under warm seas. Geological forces lifted and folded some of these rocks, forming northern England's spine. Scafell Pike, England's highest point, stands at 3,210 feet (978 metres) and is part of the world's highest mountain range. The northern mountains are mostly slate, while the southern mountains are mostly lava flows. Mountain ranges have developed from the North Downs at 965 feet (294 meters) to the Cotswolds at 1,083 feet (330 meters).

The Chiltern Hills, North Yorkshire Moors, Yorkshire and Lincolnshire Wolds, and Yorkshire and Lincolnshire Wolds were rounded into distinctive plateaus with west-facing escarpments during the Pleistocene Epoch (about 2,600,000 to 11,700 years ago). A land bridge connecting Britain to the rest of Europe was engulfed as the last glacial sheet melted. The retreating glaciers left behind gravel, sand, and glacial mud, further altering the land surface. Rain, rivers, and tides, as well as subsidence, have shaped the hills and coastline of eastern England. Limestone, gritstone, and carboniferous strata plateaus are associated with major coalfields, some visible as surface outcrops.

A great example of England's geologic complexity is its cliff structure. The chalk cliffs of Dover are made up of a series of sedimentary rocks of varying ages that start at Land's End in the far southwest and end at the Isle of Wight. The English coastline is dotted with cliffs, bays, and river estuaries that add to the overall beauty of the landscape. 

England's weather is as varied as its topography. The average temperature in England, like other temperate maritime zones, is moderate, ranging from around 35 degrees Fahrenheit (2 degrees Celsius) in January to 72 degrees Fahrenheit (22 degrees Celsius) in July in the Thames river valley (32 degrees Celsius). Tacitus, the Roman historian, described it as "unpleasant" with "frequent rains and mists but no extreme cold." However, the higher elevations of England receive snow for roughly 50 days out of the year. In fact, the northwest and southwest of England are particularly "wet". These areas receive less than 30 inches (750 mm) of rain per year and are frequently subject to severe drought. Rainfall averages only 20 inches in parts of the southeast (500 mm). The weather has influenced English art and literature not only seasonally but also day-to-day and even hour-to-hour. The bumbershoot's moniker as the stereotypical English gentleman's walking stick is not accidental.

 

The Economy of England

In the 18th and 19th centuries, England's economy was primarily agricultural until the Industrial Revolution transformed it into a highly urbanized and industrialized region as a result of the Industrial Revolution. A result of the close proximity of coal and iron ore deposits, heavy industries (iron and steel, textiles, and shipbuilding) sprang up in the north-eastern counties, and they continue to thrive today. During the 1930s, the Great Depression and foreign competition both contributed to a decline in manufactured goods production and an increase in unemployment in the industrial north, which contributed to the Great Depression. Residents of these northern counties who were out of work were forced to relocate south to London and its environs. Because of urbanization and industrialization, the southeast has become dominated by industries such as automotive, chemical, electrical, and machine tool manufacturing. Despite the fact that population growth and urbanization significantly reduced farmland in England during the twentieth century, the geographical counties of Cornwall, Devon, Kent, Lincolnshire, Somerset, and North Yorkshire have retained a significant proportion of their agricultural land.

Another period of industrial decline occurred in the late twentieth century, during which coal mining was virtually phased out and job losses in industries such as iron and steel production, shipbuilding, and textile manufacturing were particularly severe. The decline of these industries had a disproportionately negative impact on the economies of the north and the Midlands, while the economies of the south remained relatively prosperous. By the turn of the twenty-first century, the service sector had taken over as the dominant sector of the English economy, with banking and other financial services, retail, distribution, media and entertainment, education, health care, and hotels and restaurants among the leading sectors.


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