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Herefordshire

Located in the heart of Herefordshire, a historic county in west-central England on the Wye, is the city of Hereford.

After the West Saxons crossed the Severn River in the early 7th century, they established a settlement in the area now known as Hereford. This area was near the Welsh March, a politically unstable stretch of territory surrounding Wales to the east in medieval times. The town was a royal demesne in 1086, but it was also subject to a number of religious taxes (tributes) (feudal holding). The province mint was located there, and in 1215-16, the city was granted a monopoly over the local merchants by establishing a guild of its own. By the sixteenth century, the once-thriving wool trade had fallen on hard times. Although the castle had some early significance, Hereford lost its military prominence with the English conquest and occupation of Wales in the 13th century. It did not regain its status as a major military stronghold until the English Civil Wars in the mid-17th century.

From Norman through Perpendicular, every architectural style is represented at the Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary and St. Aethelberht. In 676, the bishopric was separated from that of Lichfield, and Putta became its first bishop. A superior church was rebuilt (1012-52) when the remains of a killed English leader, Aethelberht, were brought to the site, but it was destroyed by rebel Welsh. Construction on the current structure began in 1079 and was finally finished in 1148. When the western tower gave way in 1786, the west facade and the first bay of the nave also fell. It was not until 1904-08 that the west façade was finally restored. The cathedral's principal characteristics are its Decorated style central tower (165 feet/50 meters) and its sumptuous Perpendicular style north porch. There's a famous organ, a huge locked library with of books printed before the printing press, and some interesting artifacts as well.

The bishop's palace, which is located on the castle green, was originally a Norman hall and was designed in the same Perpendicular style as the nearby College of the Vicars Choral. Only one of the castle's six gates and some remnants of the original walls have remained to the present day. Both the Early English and Decorated styles may be seen in All Saints Church, which also features a chained library. This museum is located in the Old Guild House, which dates back to 1621. There has been a school on this site since 1384 when the Cathedral Grammar School opened, and since 1710 when the Blue Coat School did.

Hereford's economy is largely agricultural, revolving around the selling of Hereford cattle and the production of cider, jam, fruit preserves, and beer. Furniture, glass, leather, nickel alloys, and bricks are only some of the manufactured goods.

History

Herefordshire is an old English county, one of the original 39. Back in 1889, the Herefordshire County Council was established.

The administrative county of Hereford, which had been established in 1889, and the county of Worcestershire, which was located to the south, were united in 1974 to form Hereford and Worcester. Within this, the districts of South Herefordshire, Hereford, and a portion of Malvern Hills and Leominster made up the local governments that served Herefordshire. However, the county was disbanded in 1998, and Herefordshire and Worcestershire were restored as separate administrative divisions.

Today's unitary district and ceremonial county are largely based on the original county's boundaries.

Geography

River Wye, which flows through Powys before entering the county, is the fifth-longest in the United Kingdom at 135 miles (217 km). Before making its way back to Wales, the Wye flows through Hereford and Ross-on-Wye. The town of Leominster can be found on the Lugg, a stream that flows into the Wye.

The county is home to two National Scenic Areas. The Malvern Hills are in the east of the county, on the boundary with Worcestershire, while the Wye Valley can be found in the river's valleys to the south of Hereford.

 

England, UK Description

England is the UK's largest constituent unit, occupying more than half of the island. Despite its political, economic, and cultural legacy, England is no longer a governmental or political unit. 

With its rich soil and crisscrossing network of rivers and streams, England has been and remains a thriving agricultural economy. England became the epicenter of the global Industrial Revolution in the early 1800s, quickly rising to the top of the global industrialization rankings. Manufacturing industries in Manchester, Birmingham, and Liverpool turned raw materials into finished goods for export. London, the country's capital, became one of the world's most important cities, a hub for a global political economy. The London metropolitan area continues to be Europe's financial center and a hotbed of innovation, particularly in the fields of popular culture.

One of the most fundamental features of the English language is its diversity within a limited compass. Even England's most remote regions are accessible by car or train within a day's drive or train ride of London. Many English people identify with the regions or shires from which they are descended—for example, Yorkshire, the West Country, or the Midlands—and maintain strong ties to those regions even if they live in other parts of the country. Some differences exist, but many more, especially as England transitioned from a rural to an urban society, began to fade after 1945. The country's island location has shaped the English character, which values social harmony, social harmony, and good manners that ensure orderly relations in a densely populated landscape, among other characteristics.

During the dismantling of Britain's vast overseas empire in the mid-20th century, England suffered an identity crisis, and much attention has been paid to discussions of "Englishness"—that is, what it means to be English in a country that now has large immigrant populations from many former colonies and is far more cosmopolitan than insular. Although influenced by other cultures, English culture is distinct and difficult to define. The Lion and the Unicorn by George Orwell, a self-described "revolutionary patriot" who chronicled politics and society in the 1930s and 1940s, makes this observation. 

 

Geographical Description of England

Except for Yorkshire and Nottinghamshire in the east, England's topography is low-lying but rarely flat. The area has many rolling hillsides, with the highest elevations in the north, north-west, and southwest. Intricate underlying structures have resulted in intricate patterns in the landscape. The oldest sedimentary rocks and some igneous rocks (found in isolated granite hills) are found in Cornwall and Devon, while the most recent alluvial soils are found in the Fens of Cambridgeshire, Lincolnshire, and Norfolk. Both the sandstone and limestone bands that separate these two regions date from prehistoric times when large sections of central and southern England were submerged under warm seas. Geological forces lifted and folded some of these rocks, forming northern England's spine. Scafell Pike, England's highest point, stands at 3,210 feet (978 metres) and is part of the world's highest mountain range. The northern mountains are mostly slate, while the southern mountains are mostly lava flows. Mountain ranges have developed from the North Downs at 965 feet (294 meters) to the Cotswolds at 1,083 feet (330 meters).

The Chiltern Hills, North Yorkshire Moors, Yorkshire and Lincolnshire Wolds, and Yorkshire and Lincolnshire Wolds were rounded into distinctive plateaus with west-facing escarpments during the Pleistocene Epoch (about 2,600,000 to 11,700 years ago). A land bridge connecting Britain to the rest of Europe was engulfed as the last glacial sheet melted. The retreating glaciers left behind gravel, sand, and glacial mud, further altering the land surface. Rain, rivers, and tides, as well as subsidence, have shaped the hills and coastline of eastern England. Limestone, gritstone, and carboniferous strata plateaus are associated with major coalfields, some visible as surface outcrops.

A great example of England's geologic complexity is its cliff structure. The chalk cliffs of Dover are made up of a series of sedimentary rocks of varying ages that start at Land's End in the far southwest and end at the Isle of Wight. The English coastline is dotted with cliffs, bays, and river estuaries that add to the overall beauty of the landscape. 

England's weather is as varied as its topography. The average temperature in England, like other temperate maritime zones, is moderate, ranging from around 35 degrees Fahrenheit (2 degrees Celsius) in January to 72 degrees Fahrenheit (22 degrees Celsius) in July in the Thames river valley (32 degrees Celsius). Tacitus, the Roman historian, described it as "unpleasant" with "frequent rains and mists but no extreme cold." However, the higher elevations of England receive snow for roughly 50 days out of the year. In fact, the northwest and southwest of England are particularly "wet". These areas receive less than 30 inches (750 mm) of rain per year and are frequently subject to severe drought. Rainfall averages only 20 inches in parts of the southeast (500 mm). The weather has influenced English art and literature not only seasonally but also day-to-day and even hour-to-hour. The bumbershoot's moniker as the stereotypical English gentleman's walking stick is not accidental.

 

The Economy of England

In the 18th and 19th centuries, England's economy was primarily agricultural until the Industrial Revolution transformed it into a highly urbanized and industrialized region as a result of the Industrial Revolution. A result of the close proximity of coal and iron ore deposits, heavy industries (iron and steel, textiles, and shipbuilding) sprang up in the north-eastern counties, and they continue to thrive today. During the 1930s, the Great Depression and foreign competition both contributed to a decline in manufactured goods production and an increase in unemployment in the industrial north, which contributed to the Great Depression. Residents of these northern counties who were out of work were forced to relocate south to London and its environs. Because of urbanization and industrialization, the southeast has become dominated by industries such as automotive, chemical, electrical, and machine tool manufacturing. Despite the fact that population growth and urbanization significantly reduced farmland in England during the twentieth century, the geographical counties of Cornwall, Devon, Kent, Lincolnshire, Somerset, and North Yorkshire have retained a significant proportion of their agricultural land.

Another period of industrial decline occurred in the late twentieth century, during which coal mining was virtually phased out and job losses in industries such as iron and steel production, shipbuilding, and textile manufacturing were particularly severe. The decline of these industries had a disproportionately negative impact on the economies of the north and the Midlands, while the economies of the south remained relatively prosperous. By the turn of the twenty-first century, the service sector had taken over as the dominant sector of the English economy, with banking and other financial services, retail, distribution, media and entertainment, education, health care, and hotels and restaurants among the leading sectors.


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