City or Place
State

Cumbria Post Codes & Zip Codes List

City/Location City/County/District States or Territories States or Territories Abbrieviation Postcode
Carlisle Bedfordshire England ENG CA1 1AA
Carlisle Bedfordshire England ENG CA1 1AB
Carlisle Bedfordshire England ENG CA1 1AE
Carlisle Bedfordshire England ENG CA1 1AF
Carlisle Bedfordshire England ENG CA1 1BA
Carlisle Bedfordshire England ENG CA1 1BB
Carlisle Bedfordshire England ENG CA1 1BE
Carlisle Bedfordshire England ENG CA1 1BG
Carlisle Bedfordshire England ENG CA1 1BJ
Carlisle Bedfordshire England ENG CA1 1BP
Carlisle Bedfordshire England ENG CA1 1BZ
Carlisle Bedfordshire England ENG CA1 1DB
Carlisle Bedfordshire England ENG CA1 1DE
Carlisle Bedfordshire England ENG CA1 1DG
Carlisle Bedfordshire England ENG CA1 1DH
Carlisle Bedfordshire England ENG CA1 1DJ
Carlisle Bedfordshire England ENG CA1 1DN
Carlisle Bedfordshire England ENG CA1 1DP
Carlisle Bedfordshire England ENG CA1 1DQ
Carlisle Bedfordshire England ENG CA1 1DR
Carlisle Bedfordshire England ENG CA1 1DU
Carlisle Bedfordshire England ENG CA1 1DZ
Carlisle Bedfordshire England ENG CA1 1EA
Carlisle Bedfordshire England ENG CA1 1EB
Carlisle Bedfordshire England ENG CA1 1ED
Carlisle Bedfordshire England ENG CA1 1EE
Carlisle Bedfordshire England ENG CA1 1EJ
Carlisle Bedfordshire England ENG CA1 1EL
Carlisle Bedfordshire England ENG CA1 1ER
Carlisle Bedfordshire England ENG CA1 1EW

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Cumbria

North West England's Cumbria (/kmbri/ KUM-bree-) is a border ceremonial and non-metropolitan county that shares land with Scotland. After the enactment of the Local Government Act of 1972, the county and its local government, Cumbria County Council, were officially established in 1974. Carlisle, in northern Cumbria, serves as the county seat. Barrow-in-Furness, Kendal, Whitehaven, and Workington are also prominent cities in the area.

There are a total of 500,012 people living in the six districts that make up the administrative county of Cumbria (which are named Allerdale, Barrow-in-Furness, Carlisle, Copeland, Eden, and South Lakeland). With only 73.4 inhabitants per square kilometer (190/sq mi), Cumbria is one of the least inhabited counties in England. Abolishing Cumbria as an administrative county on April 1, 2023, and splitting it into the new regions of Westmorland and Furness (including Barrow-in-Furness, Eden, and South Lakeland) and Cumberland (Allerdale, Carlisle, Copeland).

Cumbria ranks as England's third-largest ceremonial county. Northumberland and County Durham to the east, North Yorkshire and Lancashire to the south, the Irish Sea to the west, and Dumfries and Galloway and the Scottish Borders to the north are its nearest neighbors.

The majority of Cumbria is rural, and it is home to the Lake District National Park, which is a designated World Heritage Site and often regarded as one of England's most scenic regions. The Yorkshire Dales National Park occupies much of the county's southeast, while the North Pennines Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB) touches its eastern border. A large portion of Cumbria is mountainous, and it is home to every peak in England that is higher than 3,000 feet (910 meters) above sea level. England's highest point, Scafell Pike, stands at 3,209 feet (978 meters) above sea level. Cumbria is characterized by its mountainous terrain, coastal location, and rural setting, and its history is marked by invasions, migration, settlement, and conflict between the English and the Scots. Carlisle Castle, Furness Abbey, Hardknott Roman Fort, Brough Castle, and Hadrian's Wall are just few of the many ancient landmarks to be found in Cumbria (also a World Heritage Site).

Geography

The county of Cumbria is the farthest to the northwest in England. Just west of Deadwater, Northumberland, and South Walney are Cumbria's northern and southernmost points. East and west extremities of the county are located at Kirkby Stephen (near Tan Hill, North Yorkshire) and St. Bees Head, respectively. Lake District and Pennine mountains (Yorkshire Dales and North Pennines) make up the bulk of Cumbria's hilly landscape, while the Pennines may be found in the county's eastern and southern reaches. Scafell Pike, at 3,209 feet (980 meters), is the tallest mountain in Cumbria and all of England. As England's largest natural lake, Windermere is a national treasure.

The Lancaster Canal, which stretches from Preston to South Cumbria, is partially operational. Although it was abandoned in 1945, the Ulverston Canal, which formerly extended to Morecambe Bay, is still in use. Towards the north and south, the county's lowlands are home to the Solway Coast and Arnside and Silverdale AONBs.

Boundaries and Divisions

The English counties of Northumberland, County Durham, North Yorkshire, and Lancashire, and the Scottish council districts of Dumfries and Galloway and Scottish Borders form Cumbria's borders to the south and west.

This area is bounded to the west by the Irish Sea and more specifically Morecambe Bay, and to the east by the Pennines. In the north, Cumbria is bounded by the Solway Firth, the Solway Plain, the Scottish border, and Northumberland to the east.

It consists of the six boroughs of Allerdale, Barrow-in-Furness, Carlisle, Copeland, Eden, and South Lakeland. The county of Cumbria is divided into an eastern, western, and southern region for administrative purposes. To the east are the municipalities of Carlisle and Eden; to the west, Allerdale and Copeland; and to the south, Lakeland and Barrow.

Two new unitary authorities, one for the east (Barrow-in-Furness, Eden, and South Lakeland), to be called Westmorland and Furness, and one for the west (Allerdale, Carlisle, and Copeland), to be called Cumberland, were proposed by the UK government in July 2021 to replace the county and district councils.

The county sends six representatives to Westminster: one each to the constituencies of Carlisle, Penrith & the Border, Workington, Copeland, Westmorland & Lonsdale, and Barrow & Furness.

Economy

Cumbria is home to numerous prominent institutions. Around 17,000 people are employed by the county council, whereas Sellafield, the largest private company in Cumbria, employs 10,000 people.To the right is a list of districts in Cumbria, and below that is a list of some of the major enterprises and employers in the county (excluding services like Cumbria Constabulary, Cumbria Fire and Rescue, and the NHS in Cumbria).

 

England, UK Description

England is the UK's largest constituent unit, occupying more than half of the island. Despite its political, economic, and cultural legacy, England is no longer a governmental or political unit. 

With its rich soil and crisscrossing network of rivers and streams, England has been and remains a thriving agricultural economy. England became the epicenter of the global Industrial Revolution in the early 1800s, quickly rising to the top of the global industrialization rankings. Manufacturing industries in Manchester, Birmingham, and Liverpool turned raw materials into finished goods for export. London, the country's capital, became one of the world's most important cities, a hub for a global political economy. The London metropolitan area continues to be Europe's financial center and a hotbed of innovation, particularly in the fields of popular culture.

One of the most fundamental features of the English language is its diversity within a limited compass. Even England's most remote regions are accessible by car or train within a day's drive or train ride of London. Many English people identify with the regions or shires from which they are descended—for example, Yorkshire, the West Country, or the Midlands—and maintain strong ties to those regions even if they live in other parts of the country. Some differences exist, but many more, especially as England transitioned from a rural to an urban society, began to fade after 1945. The country's island location has shaped the English character, which values social harmony, social harmony, and good manners that ensure orderly relations in a densely populated landscape, among other characteristics.

During the dismantling of Britain's vast overseas empire in the mid-20th century, England suffered an identity crisis, and much attention has been paid to discussions of "Englishness"—that is, what it means to be English in a country that now has large immigrant populations from many former colonies and is far more cosmopolitan than insular. Although influenced by other cultures, English culture is distinct and difficult to define. The Lion and the Unicorn by George Orwell, a self-described "revolutionary patriot" who chronicled politics and society in the 1930s and 1940s, makes this observation. 

 

Geographical Description of England

Except for Yorkshire and Nottinghamshire in the east, England's topography is low-lying but rarely flat. The area has many rolling hillsides, with the highest elevations in the north, north-west, and southwest. Intricate underlying structures have resulted in intricate patterns in the landscape. The oldest sedimentary rocks and some igneous rocks (found in isolated granite hills) are found in Cornwall and Devon, while the most recent alluvial soils are found in the Fens of Cambridgeshire, Lincolnshire, and Norfolk. Both the sandstone and limestone bands that separate these two regions date from prehistoric times when large sections of central and southern England were submerged under warm seas. Geological forces lifted and folded some of these rocks, forming northern England's spine. Scafell Pike, England's highest point, stands at 3,210 feet (978 metres) and is part of the world's highest mountain range. The northern mountains are mostly slate, while the southern mountains are mostly lava flows. Mountain ranges have developed from the North Downs at 965 feet (294 meters) to the Cotswolds at 1,083 feet (330 meters).

The Chiltern Hills, North Yorkshire Moors, Yorkshire and Lincolnshire Wolds, and Yorkshire and Lincolnshire Wolds were rounded into distinctive plateaus with west-facing escarpments during the Pleistocene Epoch (about 2,600,000 to 11,700 years ago). A land bridge connecting Britain to the rest of Europe was engulfed as the last glacial sheet melted. The retreating glaciers left behind gravel, sand, and glacial mud, further altering the land surface. Rain, rivers, and tides, as well as subsidence, have shaped the hills and coastline of eastern England. Limestone, gritstone, and carboniferous strata plateaus are associated with major coalfields, some visible as surface outcrops.

A great example of England's geologic complexity is its cliff structure. The chalk cliffs of Dover are made up of a series of sedimentary rocks of varying ages that start at Land's End in the far southwest and end at the Isle of Wight. The English coastline is dotted with cliffs, bays, and river estuaries that add to the overall beauty of the landscape. 

England's weather is as varied as its topography. The average temperature in England, like other temperate maritime zones, is moderate, ranging from around 35 degrees Fahrenheit (2 degrees Celsius) in January to 72 degrees Fahrenheit (22 degrees Celsius) in July in the Thames river valley (32 degrees Celsius). Tacitus, the Roman historian, described it as "unpleasant" with "frequent rains and mists but no extreme cold." However, the higher elevations of England receive snow for roughly 50 days out of the year. In fact, the northwest and southwest of England are particularly "wet". These areas receive less than 30 inches (750 mm) of rain per year and are frequently subject to severe drought. Rainfall averages only 20 inches in parts of the southeast (500 mm). The weather has influenced English art and literature not only seasonally but also day-to-day and even hour-to-hour. The bumbershoot's moniker as the stereotypical English gentleman's walking stick is not accidental.

 

The Economy of England

In the 18th and 19th centuries, England's economy was primarily agricultural until the Industrial Revolution transformed it into a highly urbanized and industrialized region as a result of the Industrial Revolution. A result of the close proximity of coal and iron ore deposits, heavy industries (iron and steel, textiles, and shipbuilding) sprang up in the north-eastern counties, and they continue to thrive today. During the 1930s, the Great Depression and foreign competition both contributed to a decline in manufactured goods production and an increase in unemployment in the industrial north, which contributed to the Great Depression. Residents of these northern counties who were out of work were forced to relocate south to London and its environs. Because of urbanization and industrialization, the southeast has become dominated by industries such as automotive, chemical, electrical, and machine tool manufacturing. Despite the fact that population growth and urbanization significantly reduced farmland in England during the twentieth century, the geographical counties of Cornwall, Devon, Kent, Lincolnshire, Somerset, and North Yorkshire have retained a significant proportion of their agricultural land.

Another period of industrial decline occurred in the late twentieth century, during which coal mining was virtually phased out and job losses in industries such as iron and steel production, shipbuilding, and textile manufacturing were particularly severe. The decline of these industries had a disproportionately negative impact on the economies of the north and the Midlands, while the economies of the south remained relatively prosperous. By the turn of the twenty-first century, the service sector had taken over as the dominant sector of the English economy, with banking and other financial services, retail, distribution, media and entertainment, education, health care, and hotels and restaurants among the leading sectors.


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