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Cambridgeshire

Located in Eastern England, Cambridgeshire is bordered by Lincolnshire to the north, Norfolk to the north-east, Suffolk to the east, Essex and Hertfordshire to the south, Bedfordshire and Northamptonshire to the west. The county seat is located in Cambridge. Modern Cambridgeshire was established in 1974 as a result of the merger of two administrative counties following the implementation of the Local Government Act of 1972. These counties were Cambridgeshire and Isle of Ely, which included the historic county of Cambridgeshire (including the Isle of Ely), and Huntingdon and Peterborough, which included the historic county of Huntingdonshire and the Soke of Peterborough, which was formerly a part of Northamptonshire. Silicon Fen is primarily located within the county of Cambridgeshire.

Cambridgeshire is now governed by two different councils: the county council (known as Cambridgeshire County Council) and the city council (known as Peterborough City Council) of Peterborough, which has existed as its own authority since 1998. Cambridge City Council, East Cambridgeshire District Council, Fenland District Council, Huntingdonshire District Council, and South Cambridgeshire District Council are the five district councils in the non-metropolitan county. The Cambridgeshire and Peterborough Combined Authority, however, has brought the county back together since 2017.

Flag Fen, in Fengate, Cambridgeshire, is notable as the site of one of the earliest-known Neolithic permanent communities in the United Kingdom, second only to Balbridie, in Aberdeenshire, Scotland. The Must Farm quarry near Whittlesey has been called "Britain's Pompeii" because of the remarkably well-preserved Bronze Age buildings discovered there. Large numbers of artifacts from the Stone Age, Bronze Age, and Iron Age have been unearthed in East Cambridgeshire. Isleham was the most prolific location for discoveries. Beginning in the fifth century, the area was populated by Anglo-Saxons. Five of the seven bones tested were either migrants themselves or derived from migrants from the continent; one was a native Briton; and one had both continental and native heritage, suggesting mixing. The skeletons were discovered in Anglo-Saxon era tombs in Hinxton and Oakington.

Cambridgeshire and the Isle of Ely were formed in 1965 by the merger of these two administrative counties.

To the west, Huntingdonshire and the Soke of Peterborough amalgamated in 1965 to become the county of Huntingdon and Peterborough, which united with its neighbor in 1972 under the Local Government Act (the latter previously a part of Northamptonshire with its own county council). Since Cambridge was the county seat, it was given the name Cambridgeshire.  Peterborough, as a unitary authority region, has been independently governed since 1998. It shares ceremonial roles with Cambridgeshire, such as the Lieutenancy, and operational roles, such as the police and fire departments, with the county. The conservation organization Plantlife unofficially declared the pasqueflower to be the county flower of Cambridgeshire in 2002.  The Cambridgeshire Regiment, located in the county, participated in the Boer War in South Africa, World War I, and World War II with the moniker "Fen Tigers." For the RAF Bomber Command, RAF Fighter Command, and the allied USAAF, the county was an ideal location for airport construction during World War II because of its flat terrain and its proximity to the continent. Cambridge American Cemetery and Memorial, located in Madingley, is a testament to the friendship and cooperation that existed between the two countries. To my knowledge, this is the only cemetery in England where American servicemen from World War II are laid to rest. 

One can be called a "Tyke" from Yorkshire or a "Yellowbelly" from Lincolnshire, among the many other county-specific nicknames used in England. Cambridgeshire natives have been referred to in the past by the monikers "Cambridgeshire Came and "Cambridgeshire Crane," after the wildfowl that used to thrive in the region's Fens. In the Fens, locals are sometimes referred to as "Fen Tigers," a derogatory term for the region's inhabitants. 

Although it shares the same maritime temperate climate as the rest of the United Kingdom, Cambridgeshire is drier than the national average due to its low altitude and easterly location. The prevailing southwesterly winds have already deposited moisture on higher ground further to the west. Cambridgeshire's inland location and proximity to continental Europe cause the moderating maritime influence to be less strong, leading to cooler-than-average winter temperatures compared to the rest of England. Due to the relatively mild winters and the occasional snowfall that is brought by the easterly winds from the North Sea, snowfall is slightly more common than in western areas. Less cloud cover in the summer allows for temperatures that are on par with or slightly above average. About ten days a year, the temperature hits 25 degrees Celsius (77 degrees Fahrenheit), making it about as warm as parts of Kent and East Anglia.

Economic Analysis and Working Group plc is headquartered in Huntingdon. Multiple RAF bases can be found between Huntingdon and St. Ives. When falling into disuse after the United States Air Force left, RAF Alconbury, located three miles north of Huntingdon, is undergoing a makeover to become the nerve center for RAF/USAFE intelligence operations, with the former bases of Upwood and Molesworth being closed. The majority of Cambridgeshire is still used for farming. Silicon Fen is a cluster of electronics, computer, and biotechnology firms located in close proximity to Cambridge. The headquarters of ARM Limited can be found in the Cherry Hinton neighborhood. The county's sole remaining port is the inland Port of Wisbech on the River Nene.

 

England, UK Description

England is the UK's largest constituent unit, occupying more than half of the island. Despite its political, economic, and cultural legacy, England is no longer a governmental or political unit. 

With its rich soil and crisscrossing network of rivers and streams, England has been and remains a thriving agricultural economy. England became the epicenter of the global Industrial Revolution in the early 1800s, quickly rising to the top of the global industrialization rankings. Manufacturing industries in Manchester, Birmingham, and Liverpool turned raw materials into finished goods for export. London, the country's capital, became one of the world's most important cities, a hub for a global political economy. The London metropolitan area continues to be Europe's financial center and a hotbed of innovation, particularly in the fields of popular culture.

One of the most fundamental features of the English language is its diversity within a limited compass. Even England's most remote regions are accessible by car or train within a day's drive or train ride of London. Many English people identify with the regions or shires from which they are descended—for example, Yorkshire, the West Country, or the Midlands—and maintain strong ties to those regions even if they live in other parts of the country. Some differences exist, but many more, especially as England transitioned from a rural to an urban society, began to fade after 1945. The country's island location has shaped the English character, which values social harmony, social harmony, and good manners that ensure orderly relations in a densely populated landscape, among other characteristics.

During the dismantling of Britain's vast overseas empire in the mid-20th century, England suffered an identity crisis, and much attention has been paid to discussions of "Englishness"—that is, what it means to be English in a country that now has large immigrant populations from many former colonies and is far more cosmopolitan than insular. Although influenced by other cultures, English culture is distinct and difficult to define. The Lion and the Unicorn by George Orwell, a self-described "revolutionary patriot" who chronicled politics and society in the 1930s and 1940s, makes this observation. 

 

Geographical Description of England

Except for Yorkshire and Nottinghamshire in the east, England's topography is low-lying but rarely flat. The area has many rolling hillsides, with the highest elevations in the north, north-west, and southwest. Intricate underlying structures have resulted in intricate patterns in the landscape. The oldest sedimentary rocks and some igneous rocks (found in isolated granite hills) are found in Cornwall and Devon, while the most recent alluvial soils are found in the Fens of Cambridgeshire, Lincolnshire, and Norfolk. Both the sandstone and limestone bands that separate these two regions date from prehistoric times when large sections of central and southern England were submerged under warm seas. Geological forces lifted and folded some of these rocks, forming northern England's spine. Scafell Pike, England's highest point, stands at 3,210 feet (978 metres) and is part of the world's highest mountain range. The northern mountains are mostly slate, while the southern mountains are mostly lava flows. Mountain ranges have developed from the North Downs at 965 feet (294 meters) to the Cotswolds at 1,083 feet (330 meters).

The Chiltern Hills, North Yorkshire Moors, Yorkshire and Lincolnshire Wolds, and Yorkshire and Lincolnshire Wolds were rounded into distinctive plateaus with west-facing escarpments during the Pleistocene Epoch (about 2,600,000 to 11,700 years ago). A land bridge connecting Britain to the rest of Europe was engulfed as the last glacial sheet melted. The retreating glaciers left behind gravel, sand, and glacial mud, further altering the land surface. Rain, rivers, and tides, as well as subsidence, have shaped the hills and coastline of eastern England. Limestone, gritstone, and carboniferous strata plateaus are associated with major coalfields, some visible as surface outcrops.

A great example of England's geologic complexity is its cliff structure. The chalk cliffs of Dover are made up of a series of sedimentary rocks of varying ages that start at Land's End in the far southwest and end at the Isle of Wight. The English coastline is dotted with cliffs, bays, and river estuaries that add to the overall beauty of the landscape. 

England's weather is as varied as its topography. The average temperature in England, like other temperate maritime zones, is moderate, ranging from around 35 degrees Fahrenheit (2 degrees Celsius) in January to 72 degrees Fahrenheit (22 degrees Celsius) in July in the Thames river valley (32 degrees Celsius). Tacitus, the Roman historian, described it as "unpleasant" with "frequent rains and mists but no extreme cold." However, the higher elevations of England receive snow for roughly 50 days out of the year. In fact, the northwest and southwest of England are particularly "wet". These areas receive less than 30 inches (750 mm) of rain per year and are frequently subject to severe drought. Rainfall averages only 20 inches in parts of the southeast (500 mm). The weather has influenced English art and literature not only seasonally but also day-to-day and even hour-to-hour. The bumbershoot's moniker as the stereotypical English gentleman's walking stick is not accidental.

 

The Economy of England

In the 18th and 19th centuries, England's economy was primarily agricultural until the Industrial Revolution transformed it into a highly urbanized and industrialized region as a result of the Industrial Revolution. A result of the close proximity of coal and iron ore deposits, heavy industries (iron and steel, textiles, and shipbuilding) sprang up in the north-eastern counties, and they continue to thrive today. During the 1930s, the Great Depression and foreign competition both contributed to a decline in manufactured goods production and an increase in unemployment in the industrial north, which contributed to the Great Depression. Residents of these northern counties who were out of work were forced to relocate south to London and its environs. Because of urbanization and industrialization, the southeast has become dominated by industries such as automotive, chemical, electrical, and machine tool manufacturing. Despite the fact that population growth and urbanization significantly reduced farmland in England during the twentieth century, the geographical counties of Cornwall, Devon, Kent, Lincolnshire, Somerset, and North Yorkshire have retained a significant proportion of their agricultural land.

Another period of industrial decline occurred in the late twentieth century, during which coal mining was virtually phased out and job losses in industries such as iron and steel production, shipbuilding, and textile manufacturing were particularly severe. The decline of these industries had a disproportionately negative impact on the economies of the north and the Midlands, while the economies of the south remained relatively prosperous. By the turn of the twenty-first century, the service sector had taken over as the dominant sector of the English economy, with banking and other financial services, retail, distribution, media and entertainment, education, health care, and hotels and restaurants among the leading sectors.


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