Lerwick, SCT - Postcode - ZE1 0AF - Post Codes & Zip Codes List
|States or Territories||Scotland|
|States or Territories Abbrieviation||SCT|
MAPS & LOCATION
Shetland, also known as the Shetland Islands and formerly as Zetland, is a Scottish subarctic archipelago located at the meeting point of the Orkney Islands, the Faroe Islands, and Norway. This area represents the northernmost part of the United Kingdom.
The islands are located about 220 kilometers (140 miles) west of Norway, 170 kilometers (110 miles) from mainland Scotland, and 80 kilometers (50 miles) northeast of Orkney. The Atlantic Ocean to the west and the North Sea to the east are separated in part by these mountains. Their 2019 population was 22,920 across their total area of 1,466 km2 (566 sq mi). Shetland is a Scottish Parliament constituency that includes all of the islands. Shetland Islands Council, the local government, is one of Scotland's 32 councils. Lerwick, the capital of Shetland since 1708 (before that, the capital was Scalloway), is the administrative center and only burgh of the islands.
The largest island, simply called "the Mainland," is the fifth-largest island in the British Isles at 967 km2 (373 sq mi). It's located on Shetland, one of the group's 16 inhabited islands. The archipelago is characterized by its oceanic climate, complex geology, rugged coastline, and numerous low, rolling hills.
Shetland has had a human population ever since the Stone Age. It is believed that the Picts were the first people to settle on the islands, long before the Norse invaded and colonized the area in the Middle Ages. The islands were a part of the Kingdom of Norway from the 10th to the 15th centuries, but were annexed by the Kingdom of Scotland over a dowry dispute in the 15th century. Trade between Shetland and the rest of Northern Europe slowed after 1707, when Scotland and England merged to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. Shetland saw a substantial increase in its GDP, number of people employed, and tax revenue thanks to the discovery of oil in the North Sea in the 1970s. As a result, fishing has long been a major contributor to the islands' GDP.
The local culture is heavily influenced by Norse traditions, such as the Up Helly Aa fire festivals and the robust musical tradition, especially the traditional fiddle style. The vast majority of island place names also trace back to Norse times. Numerous poets and novelists who have written in the Shetland language have emerged from the islands. Numerous seabird nesting areas are among the many protected areas on the islands. Two well-known Shetland animal breeds are the Shetland pony and the Shetland Sheepdog. The Shetland sheep, the cow, the goose, and the duck are all native breeds. Unfortunately, the grice (Shetland pig) has not been seen alive since about 1930.
The islands' motto, "Me lögum skal land byggja," or "By law shall the land be built," is emblazoned on the coat of arms used by the Council. The phrase comes from Old Norse and can be found in Njáls saga; it was probably taken from local laws in Norway, such as the Frostathing Law.
Environment and rock formations
About 170 kilometers (106 miles) north of Great Britain and 230 kilometers (143 miles) west of Bergen, Norway is the island of Shetland. It has a total land area of 1,468 km2 (567 sq mi) and a shoreline length of 2,702 km (1,679 mi).
Half of the archipelago's total population of 22,920 resides within 16 kilometers (9.9 miles) of Lerwick, the capital and largest settlement. West coast Scalloway was the capital until 1708, but now has a population of less than a thousand. Out of the one hundred or so islands in the area, only about sixteen are inhabited. Mainland refers to the largest island in the chain. Yell, Unst, and Fetlar are the next largest islands to the north, and Bressay and Whalsay are the next largest islands to the east. There are several smaller islands to the west of Mainland, including East and West Burra, Muckle Roe, Papa Stour, Trondra, and Vaila. Foula is located 28 kilometers (17 miles) west of Walls, Fair Isle is located 38 kilometers (24 miles) south-west of Sumburgh Head, and the Out Skerries are located in the East Channel.
Uninhabited islands include Mousa, home to the Broch of Mousa, the best-preserved Iron Age broch in the world; Noss, to the east of Bressay, a national nature reserve since 1955; St. Ninian's Isle, linked to the mainland by the largest active tombolo in the United Kingdom; and Out Stack, the northernmost point of the British Isles.
By virtue of its strategic positioning, Shetland is able to provide a wealth of such data, including: Skaw is the most northern town in the United Kingdom, and its castle, Muness, is the northernmost castle in the country.
Shetland's geology is particularly complicated, with many different faults and fold axes. Outcrops of Lewisian, Dalradian, and Moine metamorphic rocks with histories similar to their counterparts on the Scottish mainland can be found on these islands, which mark the northern end of the Caledonian orogeny. The area also features granite intrusions and deposits of Old Red Sandstone. The ophiolite, a remnant of the Iapetus Ocean floor composed of ultrabasic peridotite and gabbro, is the most striking geological formation on Unst and Fetlar.
The oil-bearing sediments in the surrounding seas are crucial to the economy of Shetland. According to the available data, a tsunami caused by the Storegga Slide struck Shetland and the west coast of Norway sometime around 6100 BC, possibly generating a wave as high as 25 m (82 ft) in the voes where modern populations are concentrated.
Ronas Hill, at 450 meters, is Shetland's highest point (1,480 ft). The islands were completely covered by glaciers during the Pleistocene epoch. During that time, a 2,000-ton glacial erratic known as the Stanes of Stofast settled atop a hill in Lunnasting.
Fair Isle, Foula, the South West Mainland (including the Scalloway Islands), Muckle Roe, Esha Ness, Fethaland, and Herma Ness are all part of Shetland's national scenic area, which is unusual in that it includes multiple locations. There are a total of 41,833 hectares included in the designation, with a marine component covering 26,347 hectares (i.e. below low tide).
As of the end of October 2018, new Scottish law forbade government agencies from using the "separate box" method of displaying Shetland on maps unless there was a compelling reason to do so. To make the islands' true distance from other areas clear, the law mandates that they be "displayed in a manner that accurately and proportionately represents their geographical location in relation to the rest of Scotland."
Shetland's primary economic drivers today are its agricultural, aquacultural, fishing, renewable energy, petroleum (crude oil and natural gas production), creative, and tourist sectors. SaxaVord Spaceport is a rocket launch facility on Unst (previously known as Shetland Space Centre). An article published in February of 2021 reported that German rocket manufacturer HyImpulse Technologies had plans to begin launching hydrogen-powered spacecraft from the Spaceport in 2023. The Space Centre had submitted plans to Council the previous month for a "satellite launch facility and associated infrastructure."
As of February 2021, the Promote Shetland website stated, "Shetland is less reliant on tourism than many Scottish islands," with oil being a significant contributor to the economy. Transitioning "gradually from oil to clean renewable energy... production of clean hydrogen" was also highlighted. As before, fishing was the main industry, and it was even expected to expand.
Scotland, UK Description
Scotland is the most northern of the UK's four constituent countries, occupying roughly one-third of the island. In the 5th century CE, Irish Celts settled on the west coast of Britain, naming it "Scotland." Scotland's name comes from the Latin Scotia, meaning "land of the Scots." Caledonia is a term frequently used to refer to Scotland, particularly in poetry. Caledonii was the Roman name for a tribe that lived in what is now northwest Scotland.
Scotland's harsh climate and extreme weather conditions have made it difficult for many generations to live there, but they have cherished it for its natural beauty and unique culture. During the Scottish Enlightenment, philosophers like Francis Hutcheson and Adam Smith forged important contributions to political and practical theories of progress. Scottish inventors, engineers, and businessmen like Alexander Graham Bell, James Watt, Andrew Carnegie, and John McAdam helped Scotland's influence far beyond its borders.
Scotland-England relations have been strained since the two countries united in 1707 to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain. Despite heavy English influence, Scotland has long maintained its independence, clinging to historical fact and legend to preserve national identity and the Scots dialect of English.
Geographical Description of Scotland
The Aegean, Atlantic, North, and English Channels border Scotland's southern, western, and northern borders, as well as its eastern border. The west coast is dotted with large islands ranging in size from small rocks to the massive Lewis and Harris, Skye, and Mull landmasses (sea lochs or fjords). Orkney and Shetland islands are located north of Scotland. 274 miles (441 kilometers) from Cape Wrath to the Mull of Galloway, and 154 miles wide from Applecross in the western Highlands to Buchan Ness in the eastern Grampians. Scotland's mainland has two halves: north and south (248 km). With only 30 miles of land separating the Firth of Clyde and the Firth of Forth, Scotland's two major estuarine inlets on its west and east coasts, from the sea, the vast majority of places are within 40 to 50 miles (65 to 80 kilometers) of the sea.
The Highlands are in the north, the Midland Valley (Central Lowlands) is in the middle, and the Southern Uplands are in the south. (The latter two are part of the Lowlands cultural region, which includes the former two.) Low-lying areas run the length of the Midland Valley and the US east coast. The east coast's smoother outline contrasts with the west coast's rugged outline, resulting in a topographic as well as a north-south divide. The Glen Mor (Glen Albyn) fault line separates the Highlands from the rest of the country. To the north of Glen Mor is an ancient plateau eroded into a series of peaks of similar height separated by glens carved by glaciers (valleys). The Lewisian Complex rocks have been worn down by severe glaciation to form a hummocky landscape punctuated by small lochs and protruding rocks from thin, acidic soil. The magnificent Torridonian sandstone mountains have weathered into sheer cliffs, rock terraces, and pinnacles.
The Grampian Mountains are located southeast of Glen Mor, though there are intrusions such as the Cairngorm Mountains' granitic masses. The Grampians are less rocky and rugged than the Northwest Mountains, being more rounded and grassy, with larger plateau areas. The area has some of Britain's highest mountains, including Ben Nevis (4,406 feet), which has cliffs and pinnacles that make climbing difficult (1,343 metres). Rannoch Moor, a desolate expanse of bogs and granitic rocks punctuated by narrow, deep lochs such as Rannoch and Ericht, is the most striking example (Rannoch Moor is the most striking of these). The Highland Boundary Fault runs northeast-southwest from Stonehaven, just south of Aberdeen, to Helensburgh on the River Clyde, passing through Loch Lomond, Scotland's largest freshwater body. The southern boundary of the Midland Valley is divided by a fault that runs from northeast to southwest, beginning with the Lammermuir and Moorfoot hills. It's misleading to call this part of Scotland the Lowlands because, while it's low compared to other parts of Scotland, it's not flat. Volcanic hills like the Sidlaws, Ochils, Campsies, and Pentlands dominate the landscape (579 metres). The Southern Uplands are not as high as the Highlands. Glaciation has created narrow, flat valleys that divide rolling mountains into sections. The gently sloping, grassy, and rounded hills just east of Nithsdale open up into fertile Merse farming land to the south. With time, the landscape west of Nithsdale becomes more rugged, with granitic intrusions around Loch Doon, and the soil becomes more peaty and wet. Merrick's high moorlands and hills can support a sheep farm at 2,766 feet (843 metres) above sea level. The uplands slope down to the Solway Firth's coastal plains in the south and the machair and Mull of Galloway in the west.
The Economy of Scotland
As a result of the problems that plagued many European countries during the 1970s and 1980s, including the widespread failure of heavy industries, Scotland's economy suffered greatly during this period. Unemployment became a significant issue, particularly in areas where major industries were in decline at the same time. A variety of measures were implemented by successive governments to improve the situation. Because of the extraction of North Sea oil and natural gas, as well as the development of high-technology industries and other economic sectors, Scotland's economy began to prosper during the 1980s.
Scotland's economy remains small but open, accounting for approximately 5% of the total export revenue of the United Kingdom. Aside from London and the eastern regions of England, no other region in the United Kingdom has a higher gross domestic product (GDP) per capita than the West Midlands, and its unemployment rate is relatively low. To be sure, wealth distribution in Scotland is not evenly distributed, and the average unemployment rate conceals pockets of significantly higher unemployment in specific regions and localities. Scottish economic development, education, and training are all overseen by the Scottish Parliament, despite the fact that the British government has control over macroeconomic policy in the country. This includes central government spending, interest rates, and monetary policy in Scotland.