London, ENG - Postcode - E1 7AY - Post Codes & Zip Codes List
|City/County/District||City and County of the City of London|
|States or Territories||England|
|States or Territories Abbrieviation||ENG|
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With a population of nearly 9 million, London is not only the capital but also the largest metropolis in England and the United Kingdom. The city of London, England, has been a major population center for almost 2000 years. It is located on the Thames River in south-east England, at the beginning of an estuary that extends for 50 miles (80 kilometers) to the North Sea. The City of London, the original settlement and modern financial hub, dates back to Roman times when it was known as Londinium and now lies within boundaries largely unchanged since medieval times. Westminster, a district to the west of the City of London, has been the seat of administration and parliament for hundreds of years. Since the 19th century, "London" has also been used to refer to the metropolitan area around this center, which is called Greater London and is mostly made up of the counties of Middlesex, Essex, Surrey, Kent, and Hertfordshire and is managed by the Greater London Authority.
London's prominence as a global city means that it has an outsized impact on many different industries, including the visual and performing arts, the fashion industry, the business sector, the healthcare industry, the media, the sciences, the travel industry, and the means of transportation and communication.
In terms of gross domestic product (€801.66 billion in 2017), it is the largest urban economy in Europe and one of the world's main financial centers. In 2021, London surpassed all other cities in terms of the number of its rich residents. University College London, Imperial College London, and London School of Economics are just a few of the world-class schools located in Europe's most densely populated area, which also boasts the largest concentration of other types of universities. The London airport system is the busiest in the world, while the London subway system is the oldest in the world. When it comes to 5-star hotels, London easily tops the list as the most-visited city in the world.
More than three hundred languages are spoken in London's incredibly varied cultural community.
Greater London's [about 9 million people as of mid-2018] made it Europe's third-most populated city, accounting for 13.4 percent of the United Kingdom's population and more than 16 percent of England's. Approximately 9.8 million people called the Greater London Built-up Area home as of the 2011 census, making it the fourth most populated in Europe. London is considered a megacity due to its metropolitan area's 2016 population of about 14 million people, ranking it third most populated in Europe.
The historic settlement in Greenwich, where the Royal Observatory, Greenwich defines the prime meridian (0° longitude) and Greenwich Mean Time, is one of London's four World Heritage Sites along with the Tower of London, Kew Gardens, the Palace of Westminster, Westminster Abbey, and St. Margaret's Church. Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St. Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, and Trafalgar Square are also popular tourist destinations in London. The British Museum, the National Gallery, the Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, the British Library, and countless West End theaters are just a few of London's many museums, galleries, libraries, and cultural sites. Wembley Stadium hosts the annual FA Cup Final, the Wimbledon Tennis Championships, and the London Marathon are also notable sports events that take place in London. When London hosted the Summer Olympics in 2012, it set a record by being the first city to ever hold three Olympic Games.
London, commonly known as Greater London, is the largest subregion of the city of London and one of England's nine regions. At one time, "London" referred to the entire city, which was centered on the City of London. However, the Corporation of London rejected attempts to merge the City with its suburbs as the metropolitan area expanded, leading to many definitions of "London."
The London post town encompasses 40 percent of Greater London; addresses in this area often include the word "LONDON." While some outside districts are not included and some are just outside the London area code's coverage, the London area code (020) covers a broader area, roughly the same size as Greater London. Greater London's border now generally follows the M25 highway.
The Metropolitan Green Belt presently prevents any further urban expansion, while some of the built-up region now stretches outside the boundary, creating the uniquely designated Greater London Urban Area. The large London commuting area lies beyond this. Inner London and Outer London are two distinct parts of Greater London, with a core London area that is more of a loose designation than a legal one. Approximately 51°30′26′′N 00°07′39′′W, the ancient Eleanor Cross at Charing Cross between the confluence of Trafalgar Square and Whitehall is considered the notional center of London. The geographic heart of London can be found in the borough of Lambeth, specifically 0.1 miles (150 m) north-east of Lambeth North Tube Station.
London enjoys a mild, pleasant, oceanic climate (Köppen Cfb). Since at least 1697, when records were first kept at Kew, the city's rainfall has been meticulously documented. In November 1755, Kew had 7.4 inches (189 mm) of precipitation, while December 1788 and July 1800 received zero inches (0.0 mm) of precipitation each. The April 1893 rainfall total for Mile End was also zero inches. We have recorded a total rainfall of 38.1 inches (969 mm) in the wettest year of 1903 and a total rainfall of 12.1 inches (308 mm) in the driest year of 1921. About 600 millimeters of rain falls each year; that's less than half the annual precipitation of New York City and less than Rome, Lisbon, and Sydney, Australia, combined. London may only average 39.2 inches of rain per year, but it still has 109.6 days of rain per year (defined as at least one millimeter of rain). While the United Kingdom as a whole is susceptible to climate change, London in particular is particularly at risk, and hydrological specialists are growing increasingly concerned that London residents may run out of water before 2050.
London's hottest day on record was July 19, 2022, when Heathrow Airport registered a scorching 40.2 degrees Celsius (104.4 degrees Fahrenheit); the coldest day on record was January 1, 1962, when Northolt Airport registered a frigid 16.1 degrees Celsius (30.0 degrees Fahrenheit). Atmospheric pressure readings have been recorded in London since 1692. For the record, on January 20, 2020, the pressure reached 1,049.8 mbars (31.00 inHg).
It gets warm to hot in the summers. A typical high temperature in London for the month of July is 23.5 degrees Celsius (74.3 degrees Fahrenheit). On average, London has 31 days a year with temperatures at or above 25 degrees Celsius (77.0 degrees Fahrenheit), and 4.2 days with temperatures at or over 30.0 degrees Celsius (86.0 degrees Fahrenheit). As a result of the persistent heat that plagued Europe in 2003, hundreds of people perished. Many deaths were attributed to the heat in 1976 when England saw a similar run of 15 days above 32.2 °C (90.0 °F). A prior August 1911 reading of 37.8 °C (100.0 °F) at the Greenwich station was later rejected as abnormal. Infrequent but significant summertime droughts are also a concern, as was the case in 2018's sweltering heatwave and the subsequent significantly drier-than-average conditions that persisted from May through December. There was a record-breaking dry spell of 73 days in the spring of 1893.
Little fluctuation in temperature characterizes the winters here. It rarely snows heavily, yet every winter brings at least one snowstorm. Seasons like spring and fall often have lovely weather. London's central business district can be as much as 5 °C (9 °F) warmer than the surrounding suburbs and outskirts due to the city's high population and the resulting urban heat island effect. This is demonstrated below in a comparison between London Heathrow, which is located around 24 kilometers west of London, and the London Weather Centre.
The City, Westminster, Canary Wharf, Camden and Islington, Lambeth and Southwark, and the boroughs of Southwark and Camden are the five main commercial hubs in London. Comparing the square footage of respective offices can provide some insight into their relative importance. In 2001, there were 27 million square meters of office space in Greater London, with 8 million square meters located in the City alone. London home prices are among the highest in the world. According to a 2015 research from international property journal, the London office market is the most costly in the world. In 2015, the value of London's residential property was $2.2 trillion, equal to Brazil's GDP for the entire year.
England, UK Description
England is the UK's largest constituent unit, occupying more than half of the island. Despite its political, economic, and cultural legacy, England is no longer a governmental or political unit.
With its rich soil and crisscrossing network of rivers and streams, England has been and remains a thriving agricultural economy. England became the epicenter of the global Industrial Revolution in the early 1800s, quickly rising to the top of the global industrialization rankings. Manufacturing industries in Manchester, Birmingham, and Liverpool turned raw materials into finished goods for export. London, the country's capital, became one of the world's most important cities, a hub for a global political economy. The London metropolitan area continues to be Europe's financial center and a hotbed of innovation, particularly in the fields of popular culture.
One of the most fundamental features of the English language is its diversity within a limited compass. Even England's most remote regions are accessible by car or train within a day's drive or train ride of London. Many English people identify with the regions or shires from which they are descended—for example, Yorkshire, the West Country, or the Midlands—and maintain strong ties to those regions even if they live in other parts of the country. Some differences exist, but many more, especially as England transitioned from a rural to an urban society, began to fade after 1945. The country's island location has shaped the English character, which values social harmony, social harmony, and good manners that ensure orderly relations in a densely populated landscape, among other characteristics.
During the dismantling of Britain's vast overseas empire in the mid-20th century, England suffered an identity crisis, and much attention has been paid to discussions of "Englishness"—that is, what it means to be English in a country that now has large immigrant populations from many former colonies and is far more cosmopolitan than insular. Although influenced by other cultures, English culture is distinct and difficult to define. The Lion and the Unicorn by George Orwell, a self-described "revolutionary patriot" who chronicled politics and society in the 1930s and 1940s, makes this observation.
Geographical Description of England
Except for Yorkshire and Nottinghamshire in the east, England's topography is low-lying but rarely flat. The area has many rolling hillsides, with the highest elevations in the north, north-west, and southwest. Intricate underlying structures have resulted in intricate patterns in the landscape. The oldest sedimentary rocks and some igneous rocks (found in isolated granite hills) are found in Cornwall and Devon, while the most recent alluvial soils are found in the Fens of Cambridgeshire, Lincolnshire, and Norfolk. Both the sandstone and limestone bands that separate these two regions date from prehistoric times when large sections of central and southern England were submerged under warm seas. Geological forces lifted and folded some of these rocks, forming northern England's spine. Scafell Pike, England's highest point, stands at 3,210 feet (978 metres) and is part of the world's highest mountain range. The northern mountains are mostly slate, while the southern mountains are mostly lava flows. Mountain ranges have developed from the North Downs at 965 feet (294 meters) to the Cotswolds at 1,083 feet (330 meters).
The Chiltern Hills, North Yorkshire Moors, Yorkshire and Lincolnshire Wolds, and Yorkshire and Lincolnshire Wolds were rounded into distinctive plateaus with west-facing escarpments during the Pleistocene Epoch (about 2,600,000 to 11,700 years ago). A land bridge connecting Britain to the rest of Europe was engulfed as the last glacial sheet melted. The retreating glaciers left behind gravel, sand, and glacial mud, further altering the land surface. Rain, rivers, and tides, as well as subsidence, have shaped the hills and coastline of eastern England. Limestone, gritstone, and carboniferous strata plateaus are associated with major coalfields, some visible as surface outcrops.
A great example of England's geologic complexity is its cliff structure. The chalk cliffs of Dover are made up of a series of sedimentary rocks of varying ages that start at Land's End in the far southwest and end at the Isle of Wight. The English coastline is dotted with cliffs, bays, and river estuaries that add to the overall beauty of the landscape.
England's weather is as varied as its topography. The average temperature in England, like other temperate maritime zones, is moderate, ranging from around 35 degrees Fahrenheit (2 degrees Celsius) in January to 72 degrees Fahrenheit (22 degrees Celsius) in July in the Thames river valley (32 degrees Celsius). Tacitus, the Roman historian, described it as "unpleasant" with "frequent rains and mists but no extreme cold." However, the higher elevations of England receive snow for roughly 50 days out of the year. In fact, the northwest and southwest of England are particularly "wet". These areas receive less than 30 inches (750 mm) of rain per year and are frequently subject to severe drought. Rainfall averages only 20 inches in parts of the southeast (500 mm). The weather has influenced English art and literature not only seasonally but also day-to-day and even hour-to-hour. The bumbershoot's moniker as the stereotypical English gentleman's walking stick is not accidental.
The Economy of England
In the 18th and 19th centuries, England's economy was primarily agricultural until the Industrial Revolution transformed it into a highly urbanized and industrialized region as a result of the Industrial Revolution. A result of the close proximity of coal and iron ore deposits, heavy industries (iron and steel, textiles, and shipbuilding) sprang up in the north-eastern counties, and they continue to thrive today. During the 1930s, the Great Depression and foreign competition both contributed to a decline in manufactured goods production and an increase in unemployment in the industrial north, which contributed to the Great Depression. Residents of these northern counties who were out of work were forced to relocate south to London and its environs. Because of urbanization and industrialization, the southeast has become dominated by industries such as automotive, chemical, electrical, and machine tool manufacturing. Despite the fact that population growth and urbanization significantly reduced farmland in England during the twentieth century, the geographical counties of Cornwall, Devon, Kent, Lincolnshire, Somerset, and North Yorkshire have retained a significant proportion of their agricultural land.
Another period of industrial decline occurred in the late twentieth century, during which coal mining was virtually phased out and job losses in industries such as iron and steel production, shipbuilding, and textile manufacturing were particularly severe. The decline of these industries had a disproportionately negative impact on the economies of the north and the Midlands, while the economies of the south remained relatively prosperous. By the turn of the twenty-first century, the service sector had taken over as the dominant sector of the English economy, with banking and other financial services, retail, distribution, media and entertainment, education, health care, and hotels and restaurants among the leading sectors.