Sunderland, ENG - Postcode - DH3 1AH - Post Codes & Zip Codes List
|City/County/District||Tyne & Wear|
|States or Territories||England|
|States or Territories Abbrieviation||ENG|
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Description of Sunderland, England
Sunderland, located in the county of Tyne and Wear, is a major port in the United Kingdom. Sunderland is the city's administrative hub and a historic county seat, located in Durham. The city is located at the mouth of the River Wear where it empties into the North Sea, and is roughly 10 miles (16 km) from Newcastle upon Tyne. Durham is located around 12 miles (19 km) south-west of Sunderland City Centre, and the river flows through that city as well. It's the largest urban area outside of the county seat (after Newcastle upon Tyne).
The modern city is comprised of three of the original settlements located near the mouth of the River: Monkwearmouth, established in 674 on the north bank after King Ecgfrith of Northumbria granted land to Benedict Biscop to establish a monastery; Sunderland, established in 685; and Bishopwearmouth, established in 930. The last two are located on the southern side of the Wear. An official town charter was granted to the second settlement at the mouth of the Wear in 1179, allowing it to develop as a fishing village and then a port. In the 14th century, when ship construction on the river began, the town began profiting from the commerce of coal and salt. As the town grew in the 19th century due to the development of its port, docks, and shipyard, it absorbed the neighboring towns. As the region's traditional industries declined toward the end of the twentieth century, it shifted its focus to car manufacturing, cutting-edge research, and the service industry. Sunderland was elevated from a borough to a city in 1992.
Geographical Description of Sunderland
The majority of the city rests on a series of low hills that run roughly perpendicular to the coast. An average elevation of about 80 meters above sea level. In the center of Sunderland, the Hylton gorge and the River Wear cut a deep valley through the city. Several smaller rivers and streams, like the Hendon Burn and the Barnes Burn, traverse the suburban landscape. The Northern Spire Bridge, which connects Castletown and Pallion, is the newest of the three road bridges that span the harbor and connect the city's northern and southern halves. The A19 dual-carriageway crosses the River Wear on the Hylton Viaduct to the west of the city.
There are several public parks in the city. Mowbray Park, Roker Park, and Barnes Park are three of the more illustrious examples. Herrington Country Park, located opposite Penshaw Monument, first opened to the public in the early 2000s. In 1993, 1997, and 2000, the city as a whole was recognized for its parks' dedication to environmental preservation by being awarded the Britain in Bloom collective.
West of the city center is where you'll find most of Sunderland's suburbs, and the majority of the city's population (70% to be exact) resides south of the river, while the remaining 30% calls the north side of the river home. Hendon and Ryhope to the south, and Seaburn to the north, are all coastal neighborhoods within the city's boundaries.
Economy of Sunderland
After the industrial downturn of the 1970s and 1980s, Sunderland has experienced substantial regeneration from the mid-1980s, especially in the City Centre and along the river corridor.
Sunderland's economy began to recover from the loss of its shipbuilding industry in the mid-1980s. In 1986, Nissan, a Japanese automaker, inaugurated their Nissan Motor Manufacturing UK plant, where they manufactured their first Bluebird model. Current vehicles produced at the plant include the Nissan Qashqai, Nissan Juke, and the electric Nissan LEAF, and the factory and its supplier companies continue to be the greatest employers in the area. As of 2012, it was the largest automotive manufacturer in the UK, producing over 500,000 vehicles annually.
Additionally, in the late 1980s, the city saw the arrival of new service sectors at locations like the Doxford International Business Park in the southwest part of the city, which attracted national and international corporations. In 2004 and 2005, Sunderland was selected as one of the world's top seven "intelligent cities" for its innovative use of IT.
St. Peter's Campus of the University of Sunderland, student housing on the south bank of the river's Fish Quay, the North Haven housing and marina development, the National Glass Centre, the Stadium of Light, and the Hylton Riverside Retail Park are just some of the residential, commercial, and recreational facilities that have been built on the former shipyards along the Wear. As of the same year, the Echo 24 riverfront luxury apartments on Pann's Bank were made available to the public. Next to the Stadium of Light in Sunderland, the only Olympic-size swimming pool between Leeds and Edinburgh opened in 2008. The Bridges shopping center was expanded in 2000 such that it now encompassed the area around Crowtree Road and the old Central Bus Station. Subsequent redevelopments on Park Lane occurred nearby.
England, UK Description
England is the UK's largest constituent unit, occupying more than half of the island. Despite its political, economic, and cultural legacy, England is no longer a governmental or political unit.
With its rich soil and crisscrossing network of rivers and streams, England has been and remains a thriving agricultural economy. England became the epicenter of the global Industrial Revolution in the early 1800s, quickly rising to the top of the global industrialization rankings. Manufacturing industries in Manchester, Birmingham, and Liverpool turned raw materials into finished goods for export. London, the country's capital, became one of the world's most important cities, a hub for a global political economy. The London metropolitan area continues to be Europe's financial center and a hotbed of innovation, particularly in the fields of popular culture.
One of the most fundamental features of the English language is its diversity within a limited compass. Even England's most remote regions are accessible by car or train within a day's drive or train ride of London. Many English people identify with the regions or shires from which they are descended—for example, Yorkshire, the West Country, or the Midlands—and maintain strong ties to those regions even if they live in other parts of the country. Some differences exist, but many more, especially as England transitioned from a rural to an urban society, began to fade after 1945. The country's island location has shaped the English character, which values social harmony, social harmony, and good manners that ensure orderly relations in a densely populated landscape, among other characteristics.
During the dismantling of Britain's vast overseas empire in the mid-20th century, England suffered an identity crisis, and much attention has been paid to discussions of "Englishness"—that is, what it means to be English in a country that now has large immigrant populations from many former colonies and is far more cosmopolitan than insular. Although influenced by other cultures, English culture is distinct and difficult to define. The Lion and the Unicorn by George Orwell, a self-described "revolutionary patriot" who chronicled politics and society in the 1930s and 1940s, makes this observation.
Geographical Description of England
Except for Yorkshire and Nottinghamshire in the east, England's topography is low-lying but rarely flat. The area has many rolling hillsides, with the highest elevations in the north, north-west, and southwest. Intricate underlying structures have resulted in intricate patterns in the landscape. The oldest sedimentary rocks and some igneous rocks (found in isolated granite hills) are found in Cornwall and Devon, while the most recent alluvial soils are found in the Fens of Cambridgeshire, Lincolnshire, and Norfolk. Both the sandstone and limestone bands that separate these two regions date from prehistoric times when large sections of central and southern England were submerged under warm seas. Geological forces lifted and folded some of these rocks, forming northern England's spine. Scafell Pike, England's highest point, stands at 3,210 feet (978 metres) and is part of the world's highest mountain range. The northern mountains are mostly slate, while the southern mountains are mostly lava flows. Mountain ranges have developed from the North Downs at 965 feet (294 meters) to the Cotswolds at 1,083 feet (330 meters).
The Chiltern Hills, North Yorkshire Moors, Yorkshire and Lincolnshire Wolds, and Yorkshire and Lincolnshire Wolds were rounded into distinctive plateaus with west-facing escarpments during the Pleistocene Epoch (about 2,600,000 to 11,700 years ago). A land bridge connecting Britain to the rest of Europe was engulfed as the last glacial sheet melted. The retreating glaciers left behind gravel, sand, and glacial mud, further altering the land surface. Rain, rivers, and tides, as well as subsidence, have shaped the hills and coastline of eastern England. Limestone, gritstone, and carboniferous strata plateaus are associated with major coalfields, some visible as surface outcrops.
A great example of England's geologic complexity is its cliff structure. The chalk cliffs of Dover are made up of a series of sedimentary rocks of varying ages that start at Land's End in the far southwest and end at the Isle of Wight. The English coastline is dotted with cliffs, bays, and river estuaries that add to the overall beauty of the landscape.
England's weather is as varied as its topography. The average temperature in England, like other temperate maritime zones, is moderate, ranging from around 35 degrees Fahrenheit (2 degrees Celsius) in January to 72 degrees Fahrenheit (22 degrees Celsius) in July in the Thames river valley (32 degrees Celsius). Tacitus, the Roman historian, described it as "unpleasant" with "frequent rains and mists but no extreme cold." However, the higher elevations of England receive snow for roughly 50 days out of the year. In fact, the northwest and southwest of England are particularly "wet". These areas receive less than 30 inches (750 mm) of rain per year and are frequently subject to severe drought. Rainfall averages only 20 inches in parts of the southeast (500 mm). The weather has influenced English art and literature not only seasonally but also day-to-day and even hour-to-hour. The bumbershoot's moniker as the stereotypical English gentleman's walking stick is not accidental.
The Economy of England
In the 18th and 19th centuries, England's economy was primarily agricultural until the Industrial Revolution transformed it into a highly urbanized and industrialized region as a result of the Industrial Revolution. A result of the close proximity of coal and iron ore deposits, heavy industries (iron and steel, textiles, and shipbuilding) sprang up in the north-eastern counties, and they continue to thrive today. During the 1930s, the Great Depression and foreign competition both contributed to a decline in manufactured goods production and an increase in unemployment in the industrial north, which contributed to the Great Depression. Residents of these northern counties who were out of work were forced to relocate south to London and its environs. Because of urbanization and industrialization, the southeast has become dominated by industries such as automotive, chemical, electrical, and machine tool manufacturing. Despite the fact that population growth and urbanization significantly reduced farmland in England during the twentieth century, the geographical counties of Cornwall, Devon, Kent, Lincolnshire, Somerset, and North Yorkshire have retained a significant proportion of their agricultural land.
Another period of industrial decline occurred in the late twentieth century, during which coal mining was virtually phased out and job losses in industries such as iron and steel production, shipbuilding, and textile manufacturing were particularly severe. The decline of these industries had a disproportionately negative impact on the economies of the north and the Midlands, while the economies of the south remained relatively prosperous. By the turn of the twenty-first century, the service sector had taken over as the dominant sector of the English economy, with banking and other financial services, retail, distribution, media and entertainment, education, health care, and hotels and restaurants among the leading sectors.