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To the east lies Kent, to the southeast is East Sussex, to the south is West Sussex, to the west is Hampshire, to the northwest is Berkshire, and to the northeast is Greater London. Surrey is a county in South East England. Surrey, with a population of around 1.2 million, is the Southeast's third-most populous county after Hampshire and Kent and the 12th-most populous in England.
As counties go, Surrey is one of the wealthier ones. Its percentage of forest cover is the greatest among English counties. It is a golfer's paradise, with several courses and the Wentworth International Golf Championships held there.
Even though Guildford is commonly thought of as the county town, the Surrey County Council has been located at Woodhatch Place in Reigate since 2020 (it had been located at County Hall in Kingston upon Thames from 1893).
Geography of Surrey
The North Downs, a chalky mountain stretching east to west through Surrey, effectively cuts the county in half. The ridge is cut through by the tributary rivers Wey and Mole that flow into the Thames, which once served as the county's northern border but has since been redrawn, leaving a portion of the river's north bank within the county's borders. To the north of the Downs, within the Thames basin, the landscape is quite flat. Here, London Clay is found in the east, Bagshot Sands in the west, and alluvial deposits along the rivers; these three types of rock make up the majority of the region's geology.
The sandstone Surrey Hills are to the south of the Downs in the western portion of the county; the plain of the Low Weald stretches eastward, rising in the far southeast to the edge of the hills of the High Weald.
As you travel south from the Downs, you'll encounter a concentric pattern of geological deposits that includes southern Kent and the majority of Sussex and is primarily made up of Wealden Clay, Lower Greensand, and the chalk of the Downs.
A sizable portion of Surrey is protected as part of the Metropolitan Green Belt. It's home to precious swaths of untouched, old-growth forest (reflected in the official logo of Surrey County Council, a pair of interlocking oak leaves). Box Hill, Leith Hill, Frensham Ponds, Newlands Corner, and Puttenham & Crooksbury Commons are just a few of the numerous scenic areas in the area.
With a forest cover of 22.4% compared to the average of 11.8% across England, Surrey stands out as one of the few counties that does not encourage the establishment of new forests by its subordinate planning authorities. The natural box woods atop Box Hill is one of the oldest in Europe and the oldest in the United Kingdom. In 2020, Surrey Heath boasted 41% tree cover, more than any other English district. In the western part of the county, on sandy soils, is where you'll find the greatest concentration of lowland heath in all of England.
Due to the lack of need for intensive farming, the landscape is dotted with commons and access areas, and the area is crisscrossed by a web of scenic long-distance trails like the North Downs Way. As a result, Surrey features a sizable contemporary horse population in addition to a wide variety of rural and semi-rural recreational opportunities.
Leith Hill, near Dorking, is Surrey's highest point. It stands at 295 meters (968 feet) above sea level and is the second-highest point in the southeast of England, behind Walbury Hill in West Berkshire, which is at 297 meters (974 ft).
Economy of Surrey
The high concentration of financial services jobs in Surrey contributes to the city's relatively high median income.
More British organizations and businesses call Surrey home than any other county.
The headquarters of Canon, Toshiba, Samsung, and Philips, as well as wholesalers Burlodge, Future Electronics, Kia Motors, and Toyota UK, pharmaceutical giants Pfizer and Sanofi-Aventis, and oil behemoth Esso are located here. Unilever, Procter & Gamble, Superdrug, Nestlé, SC Johnson, Kimberly-Clark, Colgate-Palmolive, and Colgate-Palmolive all have their European or UK headquarters in this city. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) including World Wildlife Fund UK and Compassion in World Farming have offices in the area as well.
England, UK Description
England is the UK's largest constituent unit, occupying more than half of the island. Despite its political, economic, and cultural legacy, England is no longer a governmental or political unit.
With its rich soil and crisscrossing network of rivers and streams, England has been and remains a thriving agricultural economy. England became the epicenter of the global Industrial Revolution in the early 1800s, quickly rising to the top of the global industrialization rankings. Manufacturing industries in Manchester, Birmingham, and Liverpool turned raw materials into finished goods for export. London, the country's capital, became one of the world's most important cities, a hub for a global political economy. The London metropolitan area continues to be Europe's financial center and a hotbed of innovation, particularly in the fields of popular culture.
One of the most fundamental features of the English language is its diversity within a limited compass. Even England's most remote regions are accessible by car or train within a day's drive or train ride of London. Many English people identify with the regions or shires from which they are descended—for example, Yorkshire, the West Country, or the Midlands—and maintain strong ties to those regions even if they live in other parts of the country. Some differences exist, but many more, especially as England transitioned from a rural to an urban society, began to fade after 1945. The country's island location has shaped the English character, which values social harmony, social harmony, and good manners that ensure orderly relations in a densely populated landscape, among other characteristics.
During the dismantling of Britain's vast overseas empire in the mid-20th century, England suffered an identity crisis, and much attention has been paid to discussions of "Englishness"—that is, what it means to be English in a country that now has large immigrant populations from many former colonies and is far more cosmopolitan than insular. Although influenced by other cultures, English culture is distinct and difficult to define. The Lion and the Unicorn by George Orwell, a self-described "revolutionary patriot" who chronicled politics and society in the 1930s and 1940s, makes this observation.
Geographical Description of England
Except for Yorkshire and Nottinghamshire in the east, England's topography is low-lying but rarely flat. The area has many rolling hillsides, with the highest elevations in the north, north-west, and southwest. Intricate underlying structures have resulted in intricate patterns in the landscape. The oldest sedimentary rocks and some igneous rocks (found in isolated granite hills) are found in Cornwall and Devon, while the most recent alluvial soils are found in the Fens of Cambridgeshire, Lincolnshire, and Norfolk. Both the sandstone and limestone bands that separate these two regions date from prehistoric times when large sections of central and southern England were submerged under warm seas. Geological forces lifted and folded some of these rocks, forming northern England's spine. Scafell Pike, England's highest point, stands at 3,210 feet (978 metres) and is part of the world's highest mountain range. The northern mountains are mostly slate, while the southern mountains are mostly lava flows. Mountain ranges have developed from the North Downs at 965 feet (294 meters) to the Cotswolds at 1,083 feet (330 meters).
The Chiltern Hills, North Yorkshire Moors, Yorkshire and Lincolnshire Wolds, and Yorkshire and Lincolnshire Wolds were rounded into distinctive plateaus with west-facing escarpments during the Pleistocene Epoch (about 2,600,000 to 11,700 years ago). A land bridge connecting Britain to the rest of Europe was engulfed as the last glacial sheet melted. The retreating glaciers left behind gravel, sand, and glacial mud, further altering the land surface. Rain, rivers, and tides, as well as subsidence, have shaped the hills and coastline of eastern England. Limestone, gritstone, and carboniferous strata plateaus are associated with major coalfields, some visible as surface outcrops.
A great example of England's geologic complexity is its cliff structure. The chalk cliffs of Dover are made up of a series of sedimentary rocks of varying ages that start at Land's End in the far southwest and end at the Isle of Wight. The English coastline is dotted with cliffs, bays, and river estuaries that add to the overall beauty of the landscape.
England's weather is as varied as its topography. The average temperature in England, like other temperate maritime zones, is moderate, ranging from around 35 degrees Fahrenheit (2 degrees Celsius) in January to 72 degrees Fahrenheit (22 degrees Celsius) in July in the Thames river valley (32 degrees Celsius). Tacitus, the Roman historian, described it as "unpleasant" with "frequent rains and mists but no extreme cold." However, the higher elevations of England receive snow for roughly 50 days out of the year. In fact, the northwest and southwest of England are particularly "wet". These areas receive less than 30 inches (750 mm) of rain per year and are frequently subject to severe drought. Rainfall averages only 20 inches in parts of the southeast (500 mm). The weather has influenced English art and literature not only seasonally but also day-to-day and even hour-to-hour. The bumbershoot's moniker as the stereotypical English gentleman's walking stick is not accidental.
The Economy of England
In the 18th and 19th centuries, England's economy was primarily agricultural until the Industrial Revolution transformed it into a highly urbanized and industrialized region as a result of the Industrial Revolution. A result of the close proximity of coal and iron ore deposits, heavy industries (iron and steel, textiles, and shipbuilding) sprang up in the north-eastern counties, and they continue to thrive today. During the 1930s, the Great Depression and foreign competition both contributed to a decline in manufactured goods production and an increase in unemployment in the industrial north, which contributed to the Great Depression. Residents of these northern counties who were out of work were forced to relocate south to London and its environs. Because of urbanization and industrialization, the southeast has become dominated by industries such as automotive, chemical, electrical, and machine tool manufacturing. Despite the fact that population growth and urbanization significantly reduced farmland in England during the twentieth century, the geographical counties of Cornwall, Devon, Kent, Lincolnshire, Somerset, and North Yorkshire have retained a significant proportion of their agricultural land.
Another period of industrial decline occurred in the late twentieth century, during which coal mining was virtually phased out and job losses in industries such as iron and steel production, shipbuilding, and textile manufacturing were particularly severe. The decline of these industries had a disproportionately negative impact on the economies of the north and the Midlands, while the economies of the south remained relatively prosperous. By the turn of the twenty-first century, the service sector had taken over as the dominant sector of the English economy, with banking and other financial services, retail, distribution, media and entertainment, education, health care, and hotels and restaurants among the leading sectors.