Chester, ENG - Postcode - CH1 1HF - Post Codes & Zip Codes List
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Description of Chester
Chester, England, is both a cathedral city and the county town of Cheshire. Situating on the River Dee, it is very near to the border between England and Wales. To put its 2011 population of 79,645 in perspective, Cheshire West and Chester is a unitary authority with a total population of 329,608. The city also serves as the administrative center of the county. Historic county town and second-largest city in Cheshire, behind Warrington.
In 79 AD, during the reign of Emperor Vespasian, the area now known as Chester was established as a "castrum," or Roman fort, under the name Deva Victrix. Deva was formerly one of the largest Roman military outposts in Britain and is now a thriving city. To defend against the Danes, the Angles fortified the city walls and in 689, King thelred of Mercia established the Minster Church of West Mercia, which became Chester's first cathedral. One of the last English cities to succumb to the Normans, Chester had a fortress built to watch over the city and the border with Wales. During the year 1541, Chester was officially recognized as a city.
Chester's city walls are among the best-preserved in the country and are recognized as a National Historic Landmark. Although the city center is home to a number of medieval structures, many of the black-and-white buildings were restored during the Victorian era as part of the Black-and-white Revival. The walls are nearly finished, save for a 100-meter (330-foot) segment. Significant growth and development occurred in Chester as a result of the introduction of railways, canals, and new roadways brought about by the Industrial Revolution; the Grosvenor Museum and Chester Town Hall are two examples of Victorian architecture from this time period. Economically speaking, the modern world relies heavily on tourism, retail, public administration, and the financial sector. Main entrances to Chester are marked with markers proclaiming the city an International Heritage Site.
Geography of Chester
Chester is located at the end of a Triassic sandstone ridge that spans 3.2 kilometers (2 miles) in length and rises to a height of 42 meters (138 feet) inside a natural S-bend in the River Dee (before the course was altered in the 18th century). The bedrock, also known as the Chester Pebble Beds, is easily identifiable because to the large number of pebbles and other small stones that have been fossilized inside its layers. Where boulder clay was lacking, the land was covered in sand and marl that was deposited by retreating glacial sheet ice.
Tourism, retail, public administration, and finance are currently the primary economic pillars of Chester. Visitors from all over the world come to see the city's historic sites and landmarks, which is great for the city's hospitality industry.
Rows or galleries (two-story stores) may be found in the heart of the city; some of them, including the oldest shop front in England, date back to the Middle Ages.
Many national chains have locations in Chester, and the city also boasts an indoor market, a department store (the former Browns of Chester, now part of the Debenhams brand), and two large indoor shopping centers (the Grosvenor Shopping Centre and the Forum, named after the city's Roman heritage). To the west and south are shopping centers. Both Broughton Retail Park and Cheshire Oaks Designer Outlet can be found close to the center of town.
Chester is home to numerous banks and credit unions, including Bank of America, MBNA, NFU Mutual, Lloyds Bank, Virgin Money, Quilter, Diners Club International, and M&S Bank. Over in Ewloe, Wales, the headquarters of moneysupermarket.com may be found. The city of Chester is home to both the University of Chester and the Countess of Chester Hospital, which honors Diana, Princess of Wales and Countess of Chester, with their respective names.
To the north and west of Broughton are food processing industries, and to the west, just across the Welsh border, is a huge Airbus UK factory (previously British Aerospace), employing around 6,000 people who work on the wings of the Airbus aeroplanes. Deeside is home to the Iceland Frozen Foods headquarters.
Located in northwest England, Cheshire is both a ceremonial and historic county (with different boundaries for each) and was formerly known as the County Palatine of Chester. It shares boundaries with the Welsh county of Powys to the west, the English counties of Merseyside and Greater Manchester to the north, Derbyshire to the east, and Staffordshire and Shropshire to the south. Despite the fact that Warrington has more residents, the county seat of Cheshire is located in the much larger city of Chester, with its magnificent cathedral. Alsager, Congleton, Crewe, Ellesmere Port, Frodsham, Knutsford, Macclesfield, Middlewich, Nantwich, Neston, Northwich, Poynton, Runcorn, Sandbach, Widnes, Wilmslow, and Winsford are some of the additional towns in the county.
The county of Cheshire is subdivided into the administrative regions of Cheshire West and Chester, Cheshire East, Halton, and Warrington. As of the year 2021, the county's population is projected to approach 1.1 million, and its land area will expand to 905 square miles (2,344 square kilometers). The majority of the area is rural, but a few towns and villages serve the agricultural and chemical industries, making it famous for its chemicals, Cheshire cheese, salt, and silk. Lewis Carroll, Gary Barlow, Ian Curtis, Harry Styles, Daniel Craig, Tim Curry, Pete Postlethwaite, and Shauna Coxsey, Tyson Fury, and Paula Radcliffe are just a few of the famous people that have come from the United Kingdom and made an impact on mainstream culture.
The county of Cheshire is located between the mountains of North Wales and the Peak District, on a boulder clay plain (the area is also known as the Cheshire Gap). After the glaciers retreated during the ice age, they left behind a landscape littered with kettle holes, sometimes known as meres in this region. Nearly all of the area's bedrock is composed of Triassic sandstone; this sandstone has been quarried for centuries, most notably at Runcorn, where it was used to construct Liverpool Cathedral and Chester Cathedral with its signature red stone.
Much of the county's eastern half is composed of Upper Triassic Mercia Mudstone, which was deposited alongside massive salt deposits that were exploited for centuries near Winsford. It is separated from the Lower Triassic Sherwood Sandstone to the west by the notable sandstone ridge known as the Mid Cheshire Ridge. From Frodsham to Whitchurch, a 55-kilometer (34-mile) trail called the Sandstone Trail traces this ridge, passing via Delamere Forest, Beeston Castle, and older Iron Age forts. Black Hill (582 m (1,909 ft)) near Crowden in the Cheshire Panhandle, a long eastern protrusion of the county, previously ran along the northern edge of Longdendale and on the border with the West Riding of Yorkshire, was the highest point (county top) in the old county of Cheshire. West Yorkshire's highest point is now Black Hill, according to the county's official designations.
Shining Tor, located on the Derbyshire/Cheshire boundary between Macclesfield and Buxton, is the highest peak within the present ceremonial county and the unitary authority of Cheshire East at 559 meters (1,834 feet) above sea level. Shutlingsloe, at 506 meters (1,660 feet) above sea level, is Cheshire's second-highest point after Shining Tor. Located to the south of Macclesfield Forest, Shutlingshoe is so steep that it has earned the nickname "Matterhorn of Cheshire."
Both the North Cheshire Green Belt (which is a part of the North West Green Belt) and the South Cheshire Green Belt (which is a part of the Stoke-on-Trent Green Belt) encircle the major cities of Merseyside and Greater Manchester in Cheshire. These green belts were first drawn up in the 1950s. Cities and towns like Chester, Macclesfield, Alsager, Congleton, Northwich, Ellesmere Port, Knutsford, Warrington, Poynton, Disley, Neston, Wilmslow, Runcorn, and Widnes are wholly encircled by, partially enveloped by, or on the fringes of the belts, which are located primarily within the Cheshire East and Chester West & Chester districts with small portions along the borders of the Inside Cheshire, the Peak District Park boundary meets the North Cheshire Green Belt.
Merseyside, Greater Manchester, Derbyshire, Staffordshire, and Shropshire are all neighboring counties in England, while Flintshire and Wrexham are neighboring counties in Wales. To further clarify, Cheshire is located in North West England alongside the rest of the region.
The agriculture, automotive, biotechnology, chemical, financial services, food and beverage, information and communications technology, and tourist industries all play key roles in Cheshire's economy. Cheshire cheese, salt, and silk are all products that put the county on the map. Many firsts and innovations have occurred in this county.
Cheshire is primarily rural, with many small towns. Cattle are the most common animals, and the agricultural sector is mostly centered on the dairy industry. There has been considerable ebb and flow in the amount of land used for agriculture; in 2005, it was 1558 km2 spread across 4,609 properties.  In 2005, the European Community recorded 8.51 square kilometers devoted to dairy farming, with another 11.78 square kilometers devoted to cattle and sheep.
Salt mining in Middlewich and Northwich established the county's chemical industry during the Roman era. British Salt continues to mine salt in the region. Northwich's salt mines have sustained the town's chemical sector, with major employer Brunner Mond headquartered there. In addition to Ineos (formerly ICI), the chemical industry is well represented with facilities in Runcorn by a number of other firms. Here in Ellesmere Port is the Essar Refinery, originally the Shell Stanlow Refinery. The oil refinery, which started producing in 1924, can now process 12 million tons of crude annually.
Crewe was historically the hub of the British railroad industry and is still a significant transportation hub for trains today. Although at its height after its 1840 construction the Crewe railway works employed 20,000 workers, today that number has dropped to less than 1,000. Also, Bentley automobiles are produced in Crewe. Jaguar and Vauxhall Motors both have factories in Ellesmere Port, Cheshire. The BAE Systems facility at Woodford Aerodrome is a major employer in the county; it is a component of BAE System's Military Air Solutions business unit. Avro Lancasters, Avro Vulcans, and Hawker-Siddeley Nimrods were all built at this location. The Broughton aircraft factory, which is currently affiliated with Airbus, is located on the boundary between Cheshire and Flintshire.
Visitors from all around the world, and all throughout the United Kingdom, are flocking to Cheshire. More than 2.8 million people visited Cheshire that year, and over 8 million hotel nights (both domestic and international) were logged.
There were 22,020 businesses in Cheshire registered for Value Added Tax at the beginning of 2003, an increase of 7% from 1998. Many of these were engaged in either wholesale/retail (31.9%) or business services (31%). Growth occurred in four industries between 2002 and 2003: public administration and other services (6.0%), hotels and restaurants (5.1%), construction (1.7%), and commercial services (1.0%). Employment in the county fell significantly across all industries between 2001 and 2002, although the energy and water industry witnessed the highest percentage drop. The hospitality, retail, and wholesale industries saw the most expansion during this time period. The county of Cheshire, is one of the wealthiest in the United Kingdom. But places like Crewe and Winsford have severe poverty Due to its proximity to Manchester and Liverpool, the county is experiencing a surge of "counter urbanization." Cheshire West has a fairly large proportion of residents who work in Liverpool and Manchester, while the town of Northwich and area of Cheshire East falls more within Manchester's sphere of influence.
England, UK Description
England is the UK's largest constituent unit, occupying more than half of the island. Despite its political, economic, and cultural legacy, England is no longer a governmental or political unit.
With its rich soil and crisscrossing network of rivers and streams, England has been and remains a thriving agricultural economy. England became the epicenter of the global Industrial Revolution in the early 1800s, quickly rising to the top of the global industrialization rankings. Manufacturing industries in Manchester, Birmingham, and Liverpool turned raw materials into finished goods for export. London, the country's capital, became one of the world's most important cities, a hub for a global political economy. The London metropolitan area continues to be Europe's financial center and a hotbed of innovation, particularly in the fields of popular culture.
One of the most fundamental features of the English language is its diversity within a limited compass. Even England's most remote regions are accessible by car or train within a day's drive or train ride of London. Many English people identify with the regions or shires from which they are descended—for example, Yorkshire, the West Country, or the Midlands—and maintain strong ties to those regions even if they live in other parts of the country. Some differences exist, but many more, especially as England transitioned from a rural to an urban society, began to fade after 1945. The country's island location has shaped the English character, which values social harmony, social harmony, and good manners that ensure orderly relations in a densely populated landscape, among other characteristics.
During the dismantling of Britain's vast overseas empire in the mid-20th century, England suffered an identity crisis, and much attention has been paid to discussions of "Englishness"—that is, what it means to be English in a country that now has large immigrant populations from many former colonies and is far more cosmopolitan than insular. Although influenced by other cultures, English culture is distinct and difficult to define. The Lion and the Unicorn by George Orwell, a self-described "revolutionary patriot" who chronicled politics and society in the 1930s and 1940s, makes this observation.
Geographical Description of England
Except for Yorkshire and Nottinghamshire in the east, England's topography is low-lying but rarely flat. The area has many rolling hillsides, with the highest elevations in the north, north-west, and southwest. Intricate underlying structures have resulted in intricate patterns in the landscape. The oldest sedimentary rocks and some igneous rocks (found in isolated granite hills) are found in Cornwall and Devon, while the most recent alluvial soils are found in the Fens of Cambridgeshire, Lincolnshire, and Norfolk. Both the sandstone and limestone bands that separate these two regions date from prehistoric times when large sections of central and southern England were submerged under warm seas. Geological forces lifted and folded some of these rocks, forming northern England's spine. Scafell Pike, England's highest point, stands at 3,210 feet (978 metres) and is part of the world's highest mountain range. The northern mountains are mostly slate, while the southern mountains are mostly lava flows. Mountain ranges have developed from the North Downs at 965 feet (294 meters) to the Cotswolds at 1,083 feet (330 meters).
The Chiltern Hills, North Yorkshire Moors, Yorkshire and Lincolnshire Wolds, and Yorkshire and Lincolnshire Wolds were rounded into distinctive plateaus with west-facing escarpments during the Pleistocene Epoch (about 2,600,000 to 11,700 years ago). A land bridge connecting Britain to the rest of Europe was engulfed as the last glacial sheet melted. The retreating glaciers left behind gravel, sand, and glacial mud, further altering the land surface. Rain, rivers, and tides, as well as subsidence, have shaped the hills and coastline of eastern England. Limestone, gritstone, and carboniferous strata plateaus are associated with major coalfields, some visible as surface outcrops.
A great example of England's geologic complexity is its cliff structure. The chalk cliffs of Dover are made up of a series of sedimentary rocks of varying ages that start at Land's End in the far southwest and end at the Isle of Wight. The English coastline is dotted with cliffs, bays, and river estuaries that add to the overall beauty of the landscape.
England's weather is as varied as its topography. The average temperature in England, like other temperate maritime zones, is moderate, ranging from around 35 degrees Fahrenheit (2 degrees Celsius) in January to 72 degrees Fahrenheit (22 degrees Celsius) in July in the Thames river valley (32 degrees Celsius). Tacitus, the Roman historian, described it as "unpleasant" with "frequent rains and mists but no extreme cold." However, the higher elevations of England receive snow for roughly 50 days out of the year. In fact, the northwest and southwest of England are particularly "wet". These areas receive less than 30 inches (750 mm) of rain per year and are frequently subject to severe drought. Rainfall averages only 20 inches in parts of the southeast (500 mm). The weather has influenced English art and literature not only seasonally but also day-to-day and even hour-to-hour. The bumbershoot's moniker as the stereotypical English gentleman's walking stick is not accidental.
The Economy of England
In the 18th and 19th centuries, England's economy was primarily agricultural until the Industrial Revolution transformed it into a highly urbanized and industrialized region as a result of the Industrial Revolution. A result of the close proximity of coal and iron ore deposits, heavy industries (iron and steel, textiles, and shipbuilding) sprang up in the north-eastern counties, and they continue to thrive today. During the 1930s, the Great Depression and foreign competition both contributed to a decline in manufactured goods production and an increase in unemployment in the industrial north, which contributed to the Great Depression. Residents of these northern counties who were out of work were forced to relocate south to London and its environs. Because of urbanization and industrialization, the southeast has become dominated by industries such as automotive, chemical, electrical, and machine tool manufacturing. Despite the fact that population growth and urbanization significantly reduced farmland in England during the twentieth century, the geographical counties of Cornwall, Devon, Kent, Lincolnshire, Somerset, and North Yorkshire have retained a significant proportion of their agricultural land.
Another period of industrial decline occurred in the late twentieth century, during which coal mining was virtually phased out and job losses in industries such as iron and steel production, shipbuilding, and textile manufacturing were particularly severe. The decline of these industries had a disproportionately negative impact on the economies of the north and the Midlands, while the economies of the south remained relatively prosperous. By the turn of the twenty-first century, the service sector had taken over as the dominant sector of the English economy, with banking and other financial services, retail, distribution, media and entertainment, education, health care, and hotels and restaurants among the leading sectors.