Saffron Walden, ENG - Postcode - CB10 1AE - Post Codes & Zip Codes List
|States or Territories||England|
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County of Essex in eastern England; rich in history and geography. It stretches from the mouths of the Thames and Stour rivers out into the North Sea. One portion of the original historic county of Essex is included in the administrative county's geographic county. Basildon, Braintree, Epping Forest, Harlow, Maldon, Rochford, Tendring, Uttlesford, and the boroughs of Brentwood, Castle Point, Chelmsford, and Colchester are only few of the districts that make up Essex County. Chelmsford, conveniently located in the middle of the county, has served as the administrative hub and diocese seat for centuries.
Southend-on-Sea and Thurrock are also part of the geographic county, in addition to the administrative county. The entire geographical county is part of the historic county, as is the land east of the River Lea down to where it meets the Thames. The London boroughs of Barking and Dagenham, Havering, Newham, Redbridge, and Waltham Forest are all included in this region. As of today, the area around Great Chishill is part of the South Cambridgeshire district in the administrative county of Cambridgeshire, but this does not exclude it from the historic county.
Essex, a historic county, is low and flat, with a coastline that is dotted with countless tidal inlets and islands. Even now, certain areas that were never converted to farms persist as woodland, most notably in Epping Forest, since the hardwood forest cover on its primarily clay soils defied agricultural efforts until the Iron Age.
During Roman rule, Colchester developed into one of the few coloniae (municipalities) in Britain; other Romano-British sites may be found in Chelmsford, Great Chesterford, and Rivenhall. When the Saxons left in the 5th century, the Danes came in and won the Battle of Maldon in 991. Foremost among the Essex men involved in the Peasants' Revolt in 1381 was John Ball, a former clergyman at Colchester. Colchester established itself as a major textile hub throughout the later Middle Ages.
Reclaimed area in the southeast's marshes has produced abundant harvests thanks to its fertile alluvial soil over the course of many millennia. Southend and the Tendring coast became popular destinations for Londoners in the 19th century, thanks to the expansion of railways to the area. The historic county's southwestern section, which became a part of Greater London in 1965, saw more extensive suburban development.
Many examples of medieval timber-framed buildings, sometimes plastered and color-washed, survive because local stone was so scarce that it was the primary domestic building material during the Middle Ages. Brick was utilized for grand houses like Audley End as early as the 16th century. Castle Hedingham and Colchester, both built by the Normans, are still standing.
Especially in the southern part of the county, a large percentage of the population commutes to London and other cities outside of the county for work. London employment tend to pay better than those in Essex, and they provide a useful supplement to the work done by companies there.
The county's industrial sector is concentrated in the southern part, with the remaining area devoted to farming. Companies in the fields of electronics, research, and medicine all call Harlow home. Chelmsford has played a significant role in the development of the electronics sector since the founding of enterprises like the Marconi Company. The city is also home to a number of insurance and financial services firms and, up until 2015, Britvic, a major maker of soft drinks. It is in Basildon that both the European headquarters of New Holland Agriculture and the British headquarters of Ford Motor Company are located. An assembly line producing British and foreign banknotes can be found in Debden, not far from Loughton.
Mechanical engineering, which includes but is not limited to metallurgy, glassmaking, plastics, and the service sector, dominates the county's other major industries. Colchester is an Army garrison town, and the presence of the military has a positive effect on the local economy. Basildon is home to the International Financial Data Services division of State Street Corporation in the United Kingdom, however the town still relies largely on the city of London for both its economy and its accessibility. The town of Southend-on-Sea, where the popular Adventure Island amusement park is located, is one of the few still-developing British seaside resorts thanks to its convenient location near both Fenchurch Street railway station and Liverpool Street station. As a result, real estate in the area is in high demand, especially from those working in the financial sector, which helps keep the town's commercial and general economies afloat.
The beach town of Clacton, in eastern Essex, is home to one of the most impoverished wards in the county. In 2007, Jaywick was found to be the most impoverished Lower Super Output Area in all of Southern England, according to the Indices of Deprivation. Estimates put the unemployment rate at 44%, and many people's homes lacked even the most fundamental conveniences. It was determined that the Jaywick neighborhood of Brooklands and Grasslands is the third-most impoverished neighborhood in England, behind two neighborhoods in Liverpool and one neighborhood in Manchester. Mid, west, and south-west Essex, on the other hand, are among the wealthiest regions of eastern England because of their proximity to London. The area's middle class is rather sizable, and its private schools have earned a stellar reputation. The Daily Telegraph ranked Ingatestone as the 14th wealthiest town in the UK in 2008, while Brentwood was 19th.
England, UK Description
England is the UK's largest constituent unit, occupying more than half of the island. Despite its political, economic, and cultural legacy, England is no longer a governmental or political unit.
With its rich soil and crisscrossing network of rivers and streams, England has been and remains a thriving agricultural economy. England became the epicenter of the global Industrial Revolution in the early 1800s, quickly rising to the top of the global industrialization rankings. Manufacturing industries in Manchester, Birmingham, and Liverpool turned raw materials into finished goods for export. London, the country's capital, became one of the world's most important cities, a hub for a global political economy. The London metropolitan area continues to be Europe's financial center and a hotbed of innovation, particularly in the fields of popular culture.
One of the most fundamental features of the English language is its diversity within a limited compass. Even England's most remote regions are accessible by car or train within a day's drive or train ride of London. Many English people identify with the regions or shires from which they are descended—for example, Yorkshire, the West Country, or the Midlands—and maintain strong ties to those regions even if they live in other parts of the country. Some differences exist, but many more, especially as England transitioned from a rural to an urban society, began to fade after 1945. The country's island location has shaped the English character, which values social harmony, social harmony, and good manners that ensure orderly relations in a densely populated landscape, among other characteristics.
During the dismantling of Britain's vast overseas empire in the mid-20th century, England suffered an identity crisis, and much attention has been paid to discussions of "Englishness"—that is, what it means to be English in a country that now has large immigrant populations from many former colonies and is far more cosmopolitan than insular. Although influenced by other cultures, English culture is distinct and difficult to define. The Lion and the Unicorn by George Orwell, a self-described "revolutionary patriot" who chronicled politics and society in the 1930s and 1940s, makes this observation.
Geographical Description of England
Except for Yorkshire and Nottinghamshire in the east, England's topography is low-lying but rarely flat. The area has many rolling hillsides, with the highest elevations in the north, north-west, and southwest. Intricate underlying structures have resulted in intricate patterns in the landscape. The oldest sedimentary rocks and some igneous rocks (found in isolated granite hills) are found in Cornwall and Devon, while the most recent alluvial soils are found in the Fens of Cambridgeshire, Lincolnshire, and Norfolk. Both the sandstone and limestone bands that separate these two regions date from prehistoric times when large sections of central and southern England were submerged under warm seas. Geological forces lifted and folded some of these rocks, forming northern England's spine. Scafell Pike, England's highest point, stands at 3,210 feet (978 metres) and is part of the world's highest mountain range. The northern mountains are mostly slate, while the southern mountains are mostly lava flows. Mountain ranges have developed from the North Downs at 965 feet (294 meters) to the Cotswolds at 1,083 feet (330 meters).
The Chiltern Hills, North Yorkshire Moors, Yorkshire and Lincolnshire Wolds, and Yorkshire and Lincolnshire Wolds were rounded into distinctive plateaus with west-facing escarpments during the Pleistocene Epoch (about 2,600,000 to 11,700 years ago). A land bridge connecting Britain to the rest of Europe was engulfed as the last glacial sheet melted. The retreating glaciers left behind gravel, sand, and glacial mud, further altering the land surface. Rain, rivers, and tides, as well as subsidence, have shaped the hills and coastline of eastern England. Limestone, gritstone, and carboniferous strata plateaus are associated with major coalfields, some visible as surface outcrops.
A great example of England's geologic complexity is its cliff structure. The chalk cliffs of Dover are made up of a series of sedimentary rocks of varying ages that start at Land's End in the far southwest and end at the Isle of Wight. The English coastline is dotted with cliffs, bays, and river estuaries that add to the overall beauty of the landscape.
England's weather is as varied as its topography. The average temperature in England, like other temperate maritime zones, is moderate, ranging from around 35 degrees Fahrenheit (2 degrees Celsius) in January to 72 degrees Fahrenheit (22 degrees Celsius) in July in the Thames river valley (32 degrees Celsius). Tacitus, the Roman historian, described it as "unpleasant" with "frequent rains and mists but no extreme cold." However, the higher elevations of England receive snow for roughly 50 days out of the year. In fact, the northwest and southwest of England are particularly "wet". These areas receive less than 30 inches (750 mm) of rain per year and are frequently subject to severe drought. Rainfall averages only 20 inches in parts of the southeast (500 mm). The weather has influenced English art and literature not only seasonally but also day-to-day and even hour-to-hour. The bumbershoot's moniker as the stereotypical English gentleman's walking stick is not accidental.
The Economy of England
In the 18th and 19th centuries, England's economy was primarily agricultural until the Industrial Revolution transformed it into a highly urbanized and industrialized region as a result of the Industrial Revolution. A result of the close proximity of coal and iron ore deposits, heavy industries (iron and steel, textiles, and shipbuilding) sprang up in the north-eastern counties, and they continue to thrive today. During the 1930s, the Great Depression and foreign competition both contributed to a decline in manufactured goods production and an increase in unemployment in the industrial north, which contributed to the Great Depression. Residents of these northern counties who were out of work were forced to relocate south to London and its environs. Because of urbanization and industrialization, the southeast has become dominated by industries such as automotive, chemical, electrical, and machine tool manufacturing. Despite the fact that population growth and urbanization significantly reduced farmland in England during the twentieth century, the geographical counties of Cornwall, Devon, Kent, Lincolnshire, Somerset, and North Yorkshire have retained a significant proportion of their agricultural land.
Another period of industrial decline occurred in the late twentieth century, during which coal mining was virtually phased out and job losses in industries such as iron and steel production, shipbuilding, and textile manufacturing were particularly severe. The decline of these industries had a disproportionately negative impact on the economies of the north and the Midlands, while the economies of the south remained relatively prosperous. By the turn of the twenty-first century, the service sector had taken over as the dominant sector of the English economy, with banking and other financial services, retail, distribution, media and entertainment, education, health care, and hotels and restaurants among the leading sectors.