Bristol, ENG - Postcode - BS10 7RJ - Post Codes & Zip Codes List
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Bristol, in the southwest of England, is both a city and a unitary authority. Prior to the formation of the counties of Bristol (1373-1974) and Avon (1974), the city of Bristol and the territories north of the River Avon (Lower, or Bristol, Avon) were part of the historic county of Gloucestershire, while the districts south of the Avon were part of the historic county of Somerset (1974–96). Bristol became a unitary authority after the county of Avon was dissolved.
Bristol, England may be found at the meeting of the Rivers Avon and Frome, some 190 kilometers (120 miles) west of London. Approximately 8 miles to the north-northwest, the Avon empties into the estuary of the River Severn, which then flows into Bristol Channel and ultimately the Atlantic Ocean. Bristol has been a major port and trading hub for centuries. Covering an area of 66 square kilometers (110 square km).
Bristol became a city in 1155, making it a medieval settlement. In 1247, the Frome was redirected to the west, and a stone bridge was constructed where it had once met the Avon, both of which facilitated the expansion of the harbor. Bristol bought raw wool from Ireland and produced woolen cloth, which it then exported to Spain and Portugal in exchange for sherry and port wine during the time of Edward III (1327–77). By the 16th century, Bristol had developed into a significant port, manufacturing town, and distribution center for international and domestic trade. The city also had a significant role in nautical history, as it was from its port that John Cabot set sail for North America in 1497. The city was founded in 1552 by the Society of Merchant Venturers; its hall, along with other historic structures, was bombed to rubble by the Germans in World War II. During the English Civil Wars, Bristol was a Royalist bastion until it was taken by the Parliamentarians in 1645.
Bristol thrived in the late 17th and early 18th centuries as a result of its role as a hub for the processing of sugar and tobacco imported from Britain's American colonies. The "sugar houses" of Bristol and the chocolate industry that flourished there were made possible by the import of sugar from Jamaica and cacao from West Africa. Nonetheless, by the 19th century, Bristol had lost a lot of its trade to Liverpool due to the growth of the cotton industry in Lancashire and the restrictions on ships caused by the Avon Gorge below Clifton.
Bristol is located in a region of limestone that extends from the Mendip Hills to the north to the Cotswolds to the east. Bristol's distinctive hills are the result of the rivers Avon and Frome cutting through the limestone to the clay below. From Bath's eastern flood plains and places that were once marshes before the city was built up comes the Avon. The Avon Gorge, located to the west, was carved out of the limestone bedrock by glacial meltwater following the last ice age.
The gorge, which provided protection for Bristol Harbour, was mined for stone to construct the city, and the land immediately surrounding it was set aside as The Downs and Leigh Woods to prevent further destruction. When the river reaches Avonmouth, where it empties into the Severn Estuary, it marks the county boundary with North Somerset. Northern Bristol is home to the Blaise Castle estate, which is traversed by a smaller valley carved by the Hazel Brook, which eventually becomes the River Trym.
Bristol is sometimes said to be built on seven hills, a term used by locals. Bristol (the Old Town), Castle Hill, College Green, Kingsdown, St. Michael's Hill, Brandon Hill, and Redcliffe Hill were the seven hills listed in 18th century travel guides as the city's landmarks. In addition to Red Lion Hill and Barton Hill, there are also Lawrence Hill, Black Boy Hill, Constitution Hill, Staple Hill, Windmill Hill, Malborough Hill, Nine Tree Hill, Talbot Hill, Brook Hill, and Granby Hill in the area.
Bristol is located in southwest England, 106 miles (171 km) from London, 77 miles (124 km) south-southwest of Birmingham, and 26 miles (42 km) east of Cardiff, the capital of Wales. Greater Bristol is a term used to refer to the areas immediately to the north, east, and south of the city proper. The city of Newport, Wales, is 19 miles (31 km) to the north west, while the city of Bath is located 11 miles (18 km) to the south east.
The oceanic (Köppen: Cfb) climate is often milder than that of the rest of England and the United Kingdom. Bristol, in southern England, has a mean annual temperature of around 10.5 °C (50.9 °F), making it one of the warmest cities in the UK. With an annual average of 1,541–1,885 hours of sunshine, it is among the sunniest places on Earth. It is largely protected by the Mendip Hills, but nonetheless vulnerable to the Severn Estuary and the Bristol Channel. The annual precipitation ranges from 600 to 900 millimeters (24 to 35 inches) north of the Avon and from 900 to 1,200 millimeters (35 to 47 inches) south of the river. The wettest seasons are winter and fall, however precipitation is rather consistent throughout the year. Although Bristol's average temperature remains above freezing year-round thanks to the Atlantic Ocean, the city does experience numerous frosts and even occasional snowfall between the months of November and April. The spring season is unpredictable, while the summers are hot and dry with varying amounts of sunshine, rain, and clouds.
Long Ashton (approximately 5 miles; 8 km) south-west of the city center and the Bristol Meteorological Station (in the city itself) are the closest weather stations for which long-term climatic data are available for Bristol. Both of these stations stopped collecting data in 2002 and 2001, respectively, and as of right now, the closest weather station to the city is at Filton Airfield. Between 1959 and 2002, Long Ashton saw temperatures as high as 33.5 degrees Celsius (92.3 degrees Fahrenheit) in July 1976 and as low as 14.4 degrees Celsius (6.1 degrees Fahrenheit) in January 1982. Since 2002, the hottest months in Filton have been April 2003 (25.7 °C, 78.3 °F), July 2006 (34.5 °C, 94.1 °F), and October 2011 (26.6 °C, 80.2, °F). In December of 2010, the temperature at Filton dropped to a record low of 10.1 °C (13.8 °F). The urban heat island effect, in which cities tend to be warmer than the rural areas around them, is not as pronounced in Bristol as it is in other large cities.
In southwestern England is the county of Gloucestershire, important administratively, geographically, and historically. It is near the Welsh border, at the mouth of the Severn estuary. There are some differences in the areas covered by the administrative, geographic, and historic counties. Cotswold, Forest of Dean, Stroud, Cheltenham, Tewkesbury, and the county seat of Gloucester are the six districts that make up the administrative county.
South Gloucestershire, a unitary district, and the surrounding areas are all included in the county's geographical scope. It's important to note that the historic county does not include all of the geographic county. A small portion of the county, west of Westonbirt, extends into Wiltshire, another medieval county, along the county's eastern boundary. Daylesford, Evenlode, Aston Magna, Blockley, Paxford, Cutsdean, Teddington, Chaceley, Staunton, and Redmarley D'Abitot are all located in the northern and northeastern regions of the geographic county, though historically they are part of Worcestershire. The parishes of Hinton, Childwickham, Ashton-under-Hill, and Kemerton in the Wychavon district of the administrative county of Worcestershire; the historical center of Bristol and the rest of the city north of the River Avon (Lower, or Bristol, Avon); and a region south of the River Avon (Upper, or Warwickshire, Avon), including the parishes of Welford and Upper Aylesbury.
From north to south, the River Severn flows through Worcestershire and into Gloucestershire at Tewkesbury. The low-lying Vale of Gloucester is spanned by the Severn, which is tidal below Gloucester and ranges in width from 5 to 10 miles (8 to 16 km). The eastern side of the vale is sharply defined by the Cotswold escarpment, while the western edge is bounded by the high land of the Forest of Dean. The rolling hills of the Cotswolds may be found to the east, tapering out towards the Vale of Oxford.
Several tumuli (burial mounds) attest to the presence of prehistoric peoples in the region. Roman settlements such as Gloucester and Cirencester, as well as a plethora of villas and military camps, can be found in this historic county. Soon after the Romans left, the local Britons—the forefathers of the Welsh—were overrun by the Saxon Hwicca tribe, and their territory included into the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Mercia. The county of Gloucestershire served as a battleground throughout the Middle Ages. Berkeley, St. Briavels, Bristol, and Gloucester are along a line of imposing Norman castles that attest to the proximity of the Welsh. Many of the conflicts for the English throne between Stephen and Matilda's soldiers took place in this county between 1135 and 1154. From the middle of the 14th century through the late 18th century, the indigenous sheep in the Cotswold area fed a thriving woolen textile industry. Bristol, a major port and a center for the textile industry, thrived at the same time. The Forest of Dean was once home to a thriving iron and coal mining industry, but the final mine shut down in 1965.
The majority of land is currently devoted to farming, yet less people than ever work in the industry because to technology. Rather than sheep and wool, the Cotswolds now raise cattle and arable crops
like wheat and barley. Apple, pear, and plum orchards are significant in the northeastern part of the county. The distance between Lydney and Cinderford in the Forest of Dean is still heavily forested.
Commercial and manufacturing hubs with light engineering and electrical sectors, Gloucester and the historic spa town of Cheltenham are the key employment centers in the county. Stroud, once a major hub for the woolen industry, is now home to a variety of other industries, including the plastics and scientific instruments sectors.
England, UK Description
England is the UK's largest constituent unit, occupying more than half of the island. Despite its political, economic, and cultural legacy, England is no longer a governmental or political unit.
With its rich soil and crisscrossing network of rivers and streams, England has been and remains a thriving agricultural economy. England became the epicenter of the global Industrial Revolution in the early 1800s, quickly rising to the top of the global industrialization rankings. Manufacturing industries in Manchester, Birmingham, and Liverpool turned raw materials into finished goods for export. London, the country's capital, became one of the world's most important cities, a hub for a global political economy. The London metropolitan area continues to be Europe's financial center and a hotbed of innovation, particularly in the fields of popular culture.
One of the most fundamental features of the English language is its diversity within a limited compass. Even England's most remote regions are accessible by car or train within a day's drive or train ride of London. Many English people identify with the regions or shires from which they are descended—for example, Yorkshire, the West Country, or the Midlands—and maintain strong ties to those regions even if they live in other parts of the country. Some differences exist, but many more, especially as England transitioned from a rural to an urban society, began to fade after 1945. The country's island location has shaped the English character, which values social harmony, social harmony, and good manners that ensure orderly relations in a densely populated landscape, among other characteristics.
During the dismantling of Britain's vast overseas empire in the mid-20th century, England suffered an identity crisis, and much attention has been paid to discussions of "Englishness"—that is, what it means to be English in a country that now has large immigrant populations from many former colonies and is far more cosmopolitan than insular. Although influenced by other cultures, English culture is distinct and difficult to define. The Lion and the Unicorn by George Orwell, a self-described "revolutionary patriot" who chronicled politics and society in the 1930s and 1940s, makes this observation.
Geographical Description of England
Except for Yorkshire and Nottinghamshire in the east, England's topography is low-lying but rarely flat. The area has many rolling hillsides, with the highest elevations in the north, north-west, and southwest. Intricate underlying structures have resulted in intricate patterns in the landscape. The oldest sedimentary rocks and some igneous rocks (found in isolated granite hills) are found in Cornwall and Devon, while the most recent alluvial soils are found in the Fens of Cambridgeshire, Lincolnshire, and Norfolk. Both the sandstone and limestone bands that separate these two regions date from prehistoric times when large sections of central and southern England were submerged under warm seas. Geological forces lifted and folded some of these rocks, forming northern England's spine. Scafell Pike, England's highest point, stands at 3,210 feet (978 metres) and is part of the world's highest mountain range. The northern mountains are mostly slate, while the southern mountains are mostly lava flows. Mountain ranges have developed from the North Downs at 965 feet (294 meters) to the Cotswolds at 1,083 feet (330 meters).
The Chiltern Hills, North Yorkshire Moors, Yorkshire and Lincolnshire Wolds, and Yorkshire and Lincolnshire Wolds were rounded into distinctive plateaus with west-facing escarpments during the Pleistocene Epoch (about 2,600,000 to 11,700 years ago). A land bridge connecting Britain to the rest of Europe was engulfed as the last glacial sheet melted. The retreating glaciers left behind gravel, sand, and glacial mud, further altering the land surface. Rain, rivers, and tides, as well as subsidence, have shaped the hills and coastline of eastern England. Limestone, gritstone, and carboniferous strata plateaus are associated with major coalfields, some visible as surface outcrops.
A great example of England's geologic complexity is its cliff structure. The chalk cliffs of Dover are made up of a series of sedimentary rocks of varying ages that start at Land's End in the far southwest and end at the Isle of Wight. The English coastline is dotted with cliffs, bays, and river estuaries that add to the overall beauty of the landscape.
England's weather is as varied as its topography. The average temperature in England, like other temperate maritime zones, is moderate, ranging from around 35 degrees Fahrenheit (2 degrees Celsius) in January to 72 degrees Fahrenheit (22 degrees Celsius) in July in the Thames river valley (32 degrees Celsius). Tacitus, the Roman historian, described it as "unpleasant" with "frequent rains and mists but no extreme cold." However, the higher elevations of England receive snow for roughly 50 days out of the year. In fact, the northwest and southwest of England are particularly "wet". These areas receive less than 30 inches (750 mm) of rain per year and are frequently subject to severe drought. Rainfall averages only 20 inches in parts of the southeast (500 mm). The weather has influenced English art and literature not only seasonally but also day-to-day and even hour-to-hour. The bumbershoot's moniker as the stereotypical English gentleman's walking stick is not accidental.
The Economy of England
In the 18th and 19th centuries, England's economy was primarily agricultural until the Industrial Revolution transformed it into a highly urbanized and industrialized region as a result of the Industrial Revolution. A result of the close proximity of coal and iron ore deposits, heavy industries (iron and steel, textiles, and shipbuilding) sprang up in the north-eastern counties, and they continue to thrive today. During the 1930s, the Great Depression and foreign competition both contributed to a decline in manufactured goods production and an increase in unemployment in the industrial north, which contributed to the Great Depression. Residents of these northern counties who were out of work were forced to relocate south to London and its environs. Because of urbanization and industrialization, the southeast has become dominated by industries such as automotive, chemical, electrical, and machine tool manufacturing. Despite the fact that population growth and urbanization significantly reduced farmland in England during the twentieth century, the geographical counties of Cornwall, Devon, Kent, Lincolnshire, Somerset, and North Yorkshire have retained a significant proportion of their agricultural land.
Another period of industrial decline occurred in the late twentieth century, during which coal mining was virtually phased out and job losses in industries such as iron and steel production, shipbuilding, and textile manufacturing were particularly severe. The decline of these industries had a disproportionately negative impact on the economies of the north and the Midlands, while the economies of the south remained relatively prosperous. By the turn of the twenty-first century, the service sector had taken over as the dominant sector of the English economy, with banking and other financial services, retail, distribution, media and entertainment, education, health care, and hotels and restaurants among the leading sectors.