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With a total size of 3,485 square kilometers, Wiltshire is a county located in the southwestern region of England and is significant historically and ceremonially (1,346 square miles). In all directions except south, it is surrounded by other counties: Dorset to the west, Somerset to the south, Hampshire to the southeast, Gloucestershire to the north, Oxfordshire to the northeast, and Berkshire to the east. The county was named for Wilton, however Wiltshire Council is currently headquartered in Trowbridge. Within the boundaries of Wiltshire County are the two unitary authority areas of Wiltshire and Swindon, each of which is administered by its own local government.
It is the high downland and expansive valleys of Wiltshire that define the county. The ancient Stonehenge and Avebury stone circles (both of which are UNESCO Cultural and World Heritage sites) and other notable sites are located on Salisbury Plain, which is also used by the British military for training purposes. Medieval Salisbury Cathedral is the city's most recognizable landmark. Longleat, in the vicinity of Warminster, and the National Trust's Stourhead, in the vicinity of Mere, are two notable country residences that are available to the public.
Climate of Wiltshire
Wiltshire shares the temperate climate of the remainder of South West England, which is often wetter and milder than the counties further east.
Average yearly temperatures hover around 50 degrees Fahrenheit (10 degrees Celsius). There is definitely a coastal influence, although it isn't as strong as it is in other counties in the south and west that are closer to the ocean. Daily highs average around 22 degrees Celsius (71.6 degrees Fahrenheit) during the hottest summer months of July and August. Lows of 1 or 2 degrees Celsius (33.8 or 35.6 degrees Fahrenheit) and periodic air frost are typical during the winter. Although sunny days are typically longer in the summer in southwest England, convective cloud might occur inland from time to time due to the Azores high pressure. The average annual sunshine hours are 1,500, which is lower than the area average of 1,600.
Yeovilton experienced 20 consecutive cloudy days in December 1998. Atlantic depressions and convection are mostly responsible for the precipitation in the southwest, while orographic uplift also plays a role (uplift over hills). Due to the increased activity of Atlantic depressions in the fall and winter, more precipitation falls during these seasons. While the wettest and driest months of the year can occur in any given month, the winter half of the year (Oct-Mar) is significantly more likely to be the wettest and the summer half of the year more likely to be the driest (Apr-Sept). More rain falls in the summer because the sun warms the ground, which triggers convection and, ultimately, showers and thunderstorms. However, the southern part of the county is sometimes shielded from the development of showers by the relatively cool English Channel. However, the sea is generally quite warm in the autumn and winter compared to the air moving over it, which can often lead to a heavier rainfall in the south of the county e.g. It rained more than 200 millimeters in Salisbury in both November 2009 and January 2014. The county receives an average of 800 millimeters (31 inches) of precipitation annually, with dryer regions receiving on average 700 millimeters (28 inches) and the wettest 900 millimeters (35 inches) or less (around 35ins). Average snowfall duration is between 8 and 15 days. The average wind speed is highest from November to March, and lowest from June to August. Strong winds are blowing in from the southwest.
Economy of Wiltshire
There are thirty publicly-funded county secondary schools in Wiltshire, the largest of which is Warminster Kingdown, and eleven independent secondary schools, such as Marlborough College, St. Mary's Calne, Dauntsey's near Devizes, and Warminster School. Only in Salisbury, with its two grammar schools (South Wilts Grammar School and Bishop Wordsworth's School) and three non-selective schools, does the traditional pattern of education survive.
Swindon's New College, Wiltshire's (Chippenham, Trowbridge, and Salisbury), Salisbury's (Sixth Form College), and Wiltshire's (Salisbury) all offer postsecondary education. In addition, the University of Technology at Swindon (UTC Swindon), which focuses in engineering, is located in Wiltshire. Salisbury was home to a second UTC called South Wiltshire UTC, which will be shutting down in August of 2020.
The University of Bath is the nearest to the county town of Trowbridge, however Wiltshire is one of the few remaining English counties without a university or university college. Corsham Court, a center of Bath Spa University, is located in Corsham, while Oxford Brookes University has a small campus in Swindon (almost 50 km from Oxford). While Milton Keynes has a university, Swindon is the second largest city in the UK.
The Trenchard Lines building in Upavon, Wiltshire is home to Service Children's Education's administrative offices.
England, UK Description
England is the UK's largest constituent unit, occupying more than half of the island. Despite its political, economic, and cultural legacy, England is no longer a governmental or political unit.
With its rich soil and crisscrossing network of rivers and streams, England has been and remains a thriving agricultural economy. England became the epicenter of the global Industrial Revolution in the early 1800s, quickly rising to the top of the global industrialization rankings. Manufacturing industries in Manchester, Birmingham, and Liverpool turned raw materials into finished goods for export. London, the country's capital, became one of the world's most important cities, a hub for a global political economy. The London metropolitan area continues to be Europe's financial center and a hotbed of innovation, particularly in the fields of popular culture.
One of the most fundamental features of the English language is its diversity within a limited compass. Even England's most remote regions are accessible by car or train within a day's drive or train ride of London. Many English people identify with the regions or shires from which they are descended—for example, Yorkshire, the West Country, or the Midlands—and maintain strong ties to those regions even if they live in other parts of the country. Some differences exist, but many more, especially as England transitioned from a rural to an urban society, began to fade after 1945. The country's island location has shaped the English character, which values social harmony, social harmony, and good manners that ensure orderly relations in a densely populated landscape, among other characteristics.
During the dismantling of Britain's vast overseas empire in the mid-20th century, England suffered an identity crisis, and much attention has been paid to discussions of "Englishness"—that is, what it means to be English in a country that now has large immigrant populations from many former colonies and is far more cosmopolitan than insular. Although influenced by other cultures, English culture is distinct and difficult to define. The Lion and the Unicorn by George Orwell, a self-described "revolutionary patriot" who chronicled politics and society in the 1930s and 1940s, makes this observation.
Geographical Description of England
Except for Yorkshire and Nottinghamshire in the east, England's topography is low-lying but rarely flat. The area has many rolling hillsides, with the highest elevations in the north, north-west, and southwest. Intricate underlying structures have resulted in intricate patterns in the landscape. The oldest sedimentary rocks and some igneous rocks (found in isolated granite hills) are found in Cornwall and Devon, while the most recent alluvial soils are found in the Fens of Cambridgeshire, Lincolnshire, and Norfolk. Both the sandstone and limestone bands that separate these two regions date from prehistoric times when large sections of central and southern England were submerged under warm seas. Geological forces lifted and folded some of these rocks, forming northern England's spine. Scafell Pike, England's highest point, stands at 3,210 feet (978 metres) and is part of the world's highest mountain range. The northern mountains are mostly slate, while the southern mountains are mostly lava flows. Mountain ranges have developed from the North Downs at 965 feet (294 meters) to the Cotswolds at 1,083 feet (330 meters).
The Chiltern Hills, North Yorkshire Moors, Yorkshire and Lincolnshire Wolds, and Yorkshire and Lincolnshire Wolds were rounded into distinctive plateaus with west-facing escarpments during the Pleistocene Epoch (about 2,600,000 to 11,700 years ago). A land bridge connecting Britain to the rest of Europe was engulfed as the last glacial sheet melted. The retreating glaciers left behind gravel, sand, and glacial mud, further altering the land surface. Rain, rivers, and tides, as well as subsidence, have shaped the hills and coastline of eastern England. Limestone, gritstone, and carboniferous strata plateaus are associated with major coalfields, some visible as surface outcrops.
A great example of England's geologic complexity is its cliff structure. The chalk cliffs of Dover are made up of a series of sedimentary rocks of varying ages that start at Land's End in the far southwest and end at the Isle of Wight. The English coastline is dotted with cliffs, bays, and river estuaries that add to the overall beauty of the landscape.
England's weather is as varied as its topography. The average temperature in England, like other temperate maritime zones, is moderate, ranging from around 35 degrees Fahrenheit (2 degrees Celsius) in January to 72 degrees Fahrenheit (22 degrees Celsius) in July in the Thames river valley (32 degrees Celsius). Tacitus, the Roman historian, described it as "unpleasant" with "frequent rains and mists but no extreme cold." However, the higher elevations of England receive snow for roughly 50 days out of the year. In fact, the northwest and southwest of England are particularly "wet". These areas receive less than 30 inches (750 mm) of rain per year and are frequently subject to severe drought. Rainfall averages only 20 inches in parts of the southeast (500 mm). The weather has influenced English art and literature not only seasonally but also day-to-day and even hour-to-hour. The bumbershoot's moniker as the stereotypical English gentleman's walking stick is not accidental.
The Economy of England
In the 18th and 19th centuries, England's economy was primarily agricultural until the Industrial Revolution transformed it into a highly urbanized and industrialized region as a result of the Industrial Revolution. A result of the close proximity of coal and iron ore deposits, heavy industries (iron and steel, textiles, and shipbuilding) sprang up in the north-eastern counties, and they continue to thrive today. During the 1930s, the Great Depression and foreign competition both contributed to a decline in manufactured goods production and an increase in unemployment in the industrial north, which contributed to the Great Depression. Residents of these northern counties who were out of work were forced to relocate south to London and its environs. Because of urbanization and industrialization, the southeast has become dominated by industries such as automotive, chemical, electrical, and machine tool manufacturing. Despite the fact that population growth and urbanization significantly reduced farmland in England during the twentieth century, the geographical counties of Cornwall, Devon, Kent, Lincolnshire, Somerset, and North Yorkshire have retained a significant proportion of their agricultural land.
Another period of industrial decline occurred in the late twentieth century, during which coal mining was virtually phased out and job losses in industries such as iron and steel production, shipbuilding, and textile manufacturing were particularly severe. The decline of these industries had a disproportionately negative impact on the economies of the north and the Midlands, while the economies of the south remained relatively prosperous. By the turn of the twenty-first century, the service sector had taken over as the dominant sector of the English economy, with banking and other financial services, retail, distribution, media and entertainment, education, health care, and hotels and restaurants among the leading sectors.