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Description of Dungannon

Dungannon, Northern Ireland, is located in County Tyrone. Its name comes from the Irish phrase for "Geanann's fort" (Dn Geanainn). At 14,340 people, the 2011 Census placed it as the county's second-largest town, behind only Omagh.  After serving as the seat of the Dungannon and South Tyrone Borough Council, the town fell under the jurisdiction of the Mid-Ulster District Council in 2015.

The O'Neill dynasty of Tr Eoghain, who ruled over much of Ulster and constructed a castle there, considered it their "capital" for centuries. Dungannon grew from its plantation town roots when the O'Neills were defeated by the English in the Nine Years' War. Five times, Dungannon has been named Ulster in Bloom's Best Kept Town. At the present time, its immigrant population is larger than that of any other Northern Irish town.

Dungannon's fortunes were intertwined with the O'Neill dynasty, who dominated much of Ulster until the 17th century, for centuries. The clan's primary fortress was located in Dungannon. Tullyhogue Fort, an Iron Age mound about four miles northeast of Dungannon, was the reputed site of 'The O'Neill's' inauguration. The O'Hagan family had been the O'Neills' trusted caretakers of this land. The O'Neills erected a fortress on the site now known as Castle Hill in the 14th century because it was one of the highest points in the region and provided a commanding vantage point over the surrounding countryside from which, on a clear day, they could see as many as seven different counties.

In 1602, as Crown forces under Lord Mountjoy drew in on the Gaelic lords during the end of the Nine Years' War, Hugh O'Neill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone, set fire to this stronghold. Known as the Flight of the Earls, this incident occurred in 1607 when 99 Irish chieftains and their adherents, including Hugh O'Neill, left sail from Rathmullan for the continent. Dungannon and its castle were given to Sir Arthur Chichester, the Lord Deputy of Ireland, during the process that became known as the Plantation of Ulster and involved the confiscation of land and its redistribution to Protestant English and Scottish settlers. 

During the early phases of the Irish Rebellion of 1641, Sir Phelim O'Neill took control of the town and issued the Proclamation of Dungannon, in which the rebels outlined their goals and pledged allegiance to Charles I. O'Neill said they were obeying the King's orders when they rose up, and he even produced a fake commission to back up his story.  Dungannon changed hands numerous times during the Irish Confederate Wars. In September 1642, Scots Covenanter forces led by Alexander Leslie conquered the city, but O'Neill retook it in the spring of 1643. 

Time Team, an archaeological program broadcast on Channel 4, excavated the castle in October 2007 and uncovered a portion of the moat and walls. The new Dungannon and South Tyrone Borough Council district was established in the town in 1973, and the council seat moved there. The Protestant Ascendancy, who dominated the Irish Parliament at the time, declared the country's independence there in 1782.

Geography of Dungannon

It is located in the medieval barony of Dungannon Middle and the civil parish of Drumglass in the southeast corner of County Tyrone.

Castle Hill is the local name for the hill that the town grew up around. Three small lakes lie to the south of the city, the largest of which is called Black Lough. Dungannon Park and Windmill Park can be found in the city's eastern quadrant. Moygashel, a small town in Dungannon's southeastern outskirts; Coalisland, northeast; Donaghmore, northwest; Eglish, south; and Castlecaulfield, southwest (to the west)


Northern Ireland, UK Description

Northern Ireland is a constituent state of the United Kingdom, located in the island of Ireland's northeastern quadrant, on the western continental periphery commonly referred to as Atlantic Europe. It is the only part of the United Kingdom that is not part of the European Union. Northern Ireland is occasionally referred to as Ulster, despite the fact that it consists of only six of the nine counties that comprised that historic Irish province.

A long history of newcomers and emigrants has shaped Northern Ireland, which has welcomed Celts from Europe's continental shores as well as Vikings, Normans, and Anglo-Saxons. Over the course of the 17th century, thousands of Scottish Presbyterians were forcibly resettled and English military garrisons were established, resulting in the institutionalization of the ethnic, religious, and political divisions that eventually led to violent conflict.

Since the 1920s, when Northern Ireland was officially separated from the Republic of Ireland, the region has been wracked by sectarian violence. It doesn't matter how serious Northern Ireland's peacemaking efforts have been since the mid-1990s; those who are familiar with the shibboleths and cultural codes that define its peoples are the best equipped to navigate the region, dictating which football (soccer) team to root for, which whiskey to sip, and which song to sing. An old graffito once scrawled on the walls of Belfast captures the complexities of those political markers: "If you are not confused, you do not understand the situation." Outsiders are increasingly familiar with Northern Ireland because of its contributions to world culture, including poetry by Seamus Heaney and music by Van Morrison. However, Northern Ireland's political fortunes have improved since then, and with that improvement has come a flourishing of the arts.

Located in Northern Ireland's capital, Belfast, a modern city whose historic core was severely damaged by aerial bombardment during World War II. Belfast, once known for its shipyards (where the Titanic was built), has seen a significant reduction in the size of its industrial base. Aesthetically, the city is similar to Northern Ireland's other major cities, Londonderry (also known as Derry locally and historically) and Armagh, in that it is adorned with parks and orderly residential neighborhoods. It is even more beautiful in Northern Ireland's countryside: lush, fertile, and dotted with rivers and lakes. These features, as well as the country's folk and artistic traditions, have found poetic expression in the country's folk and artistic traditions.


Geographical Description of Northern Island

On the island of Ireland, Northern Ireland occupies approximately one-sixth of the total land area. It is separated from Scotland, which is also a part of the United Kingdom, on the east by the narrow North Channel, which is only 13 miles (21 kilometers) wide at one point and forms a natural border with the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea separates Northern Ireland from England and Wales on the east and southeast, respectively, and the Atlantic Ocean separates it from the rest of the world on the north. The Republic of Ireland forms the southern and western borders of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

In terms of topography, Northern Ireland can be thought of as a saucer with its center at Lough (lake) Neagh, and the highlands can be considered the inverted rim of that saucer. On the rim of the saucer, five of Ireland's six historic counties—Antrim, Down, Armagh, Tyrone and Londonderry—converge to form the lake, and each has its own highland region that extends from its shores. Towards the north and east, Antrim's mountains (which are actually a plateau) rise steeply from the sea and slope upward. It reaches an elevation of 1,817 feet (554 bmetres) at Trostan, with the plateau terminating in an impressive basalt and chalk cliff coastline, broken by a series of glaciated valleys known as glens and facing Scotland, but otherwise isolated from the remainder of Northern Ireland. Slieve Croob (which rises to 1,745 feet (532 metres) in the southeast) and the Mourne Mountains (which reach an elevation of 2,789 feet (850 metres) at Slieve Donard (Northern Ireland's highest point) are all within two miles (3 kilometers) of each other in the southwest. In the southeast, the rounded landscape of drumlins—smooth, elongated mounds left by the final Pleistocene glaciation' South of Carlingford Lough, this magnificent landscape of granite peaks is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean.

The scenery is gentler south of Lough Neagh, but the land rises to a height of 1,886 feet (575 metres) in Slieve Gullion, near the Irish border, where the land rises to 1,886 feet (575 metres). West of Lough Neagh, the land gently rises to the more rounded Sperrin Mountains; Sawel, at 2,224 feet (678 metres), is the highest of several 2,000-foot-plus hills in the area; Sawel is also the highest point in the area (610 metres). Located in the far southwest, historically known as County Fermanagh, the region is geographically centered on the basin of Lough Erne, in a drumlin-strewn area surrounded by hills rising to more than 1,000 feet (300 metres) in elevation.


The Economy of Northern Ireland

Because of its close ties to the rest of the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland's economy is inextricably intertwined with it. Trade between Northern Ireland and its closest neighbor, the Republic of Ireland, has grown significantly in recent years despite the fact that economic ties between the two countries have historically been underdeveloped. Northern Ireland's economy has long been underperforming in comparison to the rest of the United Kingdom, owing largely to political and social unrest on the island of Ireland. The International Fund for Ireland was established in the 1980s by the governments of the United Kingdom and Ireland to aid in the development of the country's economy. Providing economic assistance to the entire island, with a particular emphasis on Northern Ireland, the fund's mission is to alleviate poverty. The European Union also provides financial assistance to the Northern Ireland government and its citizens.

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