Greater Manchester Post Codes & Zip Codes List
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Manchester, Salford, Bolton, Bury, Oldham, Rochdale, Stockport, Tameside, Trafford, and Wigan are just 10 of the metropolitan boroughs that make up Greater Manchester, a metropolitan county and combined authority area in North West England with a population of 2.8 million. As a result of the Local Government Act of 1972, the county was established on April 1st, 1974, and it was officially recognized as a functional city region on April 1st, 2011. Greater Manchester consists of territory that was formerly a part of Cheshire, Lancashire, and the West Riding of Yorkshire.
Greater Manchester comprises an area of approximately 493 square miles (1,277 square kilometers), which includes most of the Greater Manchester Built-up Area, the second most populated urban area in the United Kingdom. The Manchester Ship Canal, which runs through Salford and Trafford, provides a connection to the sea despite the city's landlocked location. In addition to Merseyside to the north, the ceremonial counties of Cheshire (to the south and west), Derbyshire (to the south-east), West Yorkshire (to the north-east), and Lancashire (to the north) surround Greater Manchester (to the west). The concentric urbanization and industrialization that took place in Greater Manchester primarily in the 19th century, when the region flourished as the global center of the cotton industry, have resulted in a diverse urban landscape that includes dense urban cores as well as suburbs, semi-rural, and rural areas. Although Manchester and Salford and the Borough of Trafford comprise a concentrated central business district, Greater Manchester is also a polycentric county with eleven metropolitan districts, each of which is centered on a sizable town or city (Manchester and Salford being the only cities). Each municipality is divided into a number of these districts, and within them are located its suburbs, towns, and villages.
Political leaders from Greater Manchester's ten metropolitan borough councils and a directly elected mayor form the Greater Manchester Combined Authority (GMCA), which is in charge of the region's economic growth, neighborhood revitalization, and public transportation. Mayor of Greater Manchester since 2017, Andy Burnham. During the decade and a half that followed 1974, the Greater Manchester County Council and the county's district councils operated as coequal bodies. Since the county council was eliminated in 1986, the districts it had previously administered (the metropolitan boroughs) have functioned as unitary authority territories. The metropolitan county, however, survived both legally and geographically, and it retained its own Lord Lieutenant and High Sheriff for ceremonial purposes. Between 1985 and 2011, the Association of Greater Manchester Authorities acted as the county's central coordinator for a variety of services.
South East Lancashire North East Cheshire was the area's name before the metropolitan county was established (SELNEC). The metropolitan area of Greater Manchester was formed through the merger of 70 different local government districts from the old counties of Lancashire, Cheshire, the West Riding of Yorkshire, and eight separate county boroughs. Greater Manchester is a key hub for the service, media, and digital industries that have flourished there since the city's deindustrialization in the middle of the twentieth century. It is also famous for its guitar and dance music, as well as its association football clubs.
Greater Manchester occupies 493 square miles and is completely surrounded by land (1,277 km2). The Pennines, including the West Pennine Moors to the northwest, the South Pennines to the northeast, and the Peak District to the east, rise to the north and east of the county. The Cheshire Plain borders the county's southern border, and several coalfields (made up of sandstones and shales) may be found in the western part of the area. Mersey, Irwell, and Tame are three rivers that originate in the Pennines and flow through Greater Manchester. The Douglas, the Irk, and the Roch are just a few of the smaller rivers that flow through the area and feed into the larger ones.  Located in the parish of Saddleworth, at an elevation of 1,778 feet (542 m) above sea level, Black Chew Head is the highest point in Greater Manchester and the Peak District National Park.
Greater Manchester is characterized by its dense urban and industrial developments, including commercial, financial, retail, and administrative hubs; commuter suburbs and housing; and transportation infrastructure like light rail, highways, and motorway and canals. Land use in Greater Manchester is predominantly urban, however it does include some suburban, semi-rural, and rural areas. Red brick and sandstone feature strongly in Greater Manchester's built environment, alongside constructions made of modern materials, high-rise towers, and landmark 19th-, 20th-, and 21st-century buildings in the city and town centers.
For the purposes of municipal planning and public transportation, Greater Manchester's "Regional Centre" includes the central business district of Manchester as well as neighboring sections of Salford and Trafford. With the emergence of metropolitan-level centers in England, political and economic relations have developed between the city center and neighboring Salford and Trafford, and the area's high-rise iconic buildings serve as a visual orientation point of reference. Greater Manchester, on the other hand, is a polycentric county with eleven metropolitan districts, each of which contains a significant town center - and in some cases, more than one - and many minor villages. Outlying suburbs (such Denton, Middleton, and Failsworth) surround the Regional Centre and the major town centers, while the major towns surrounding Manchester city center. These elements combine to make Greater Manchester the most complicated "polycentric functional urban region" in the United Kingdom outside of London.
Manchester accounts for the largest share of the 16% of Greater Manchester jobs that are supported by the creative industries. "Greater Manchester is a creative powerhouse," said then-Foreign Secretary Will Straw in 2014. The city is known for its contributions to the arts in many fields, including soccer, television and film, and rock, punk, and electronic music. Greater Manchester's rivalry with neighboring Liverpool dates back to the beginning of the industrial revolution and is rooted in the cities' longstanding struggle in the economic and industrial sectors.
Some truly delicious treats originated in the Greater Manchester area. Bury's black pudding is a blood sausage, Bolton's pasty barm combines a pasty with a barm cake, Oldham's rag pudding is a suet pastry pudding stuffed with steak and onions, and Manchester's Manchester egg was debuted in 2010. Traditional sweet mild mints manufactured in Wigan since their inception in 1898 include Uncle Joe's Mint Balls. Other sweet treats include Eccles cake, a small round flaky pastry cake filled with currants, sugar, and spice; Manchester tart, a baked tart consisting of a shortcrust pastry shell spread with raspberry jam; and Wigan's Uncle Joe's Mint Balls. Both the soft beverages Vimto (1908) and Tizer (1924) were developed in Manchester. Manchester's Boddingtons bitter, marketed as the "Cream of Manchester" in the '90s, is often credited with helping to elevate the city's profile at the time.
The Greater Manchester Campaign for Real Ale is a branch of the national Campaign for Real Ale, an advocacy group that supports, promotes and preserves the beer and drinks industry, and recognising outstanding venues with awards; The Nursery in Heaton Norris was its National Pub of the Year in 2001, and The Baum in Rochdale was its National Pub of the Year in 2012. Established in 1997 as an urban beverage and gastronomy fair, the Manchester Food and Drink Festival has since expanded to include events all around Greater Manchester, such as the Prestwich Food and Drink Festival, the World Pie Eating Championship in Wigan, and the Ramsbottom Chocolate Festival. Mana, Manchester's lone Michelin-starred restaurant, will still be open by 2020. Moreover, three Bib Gourmand-awarded restaurants may be found in the area.
England, UK Description
England is the UK's largest constituent unit, occupying more than half of the island. Despite its political, economic, and cultural legacy, England is no longer a governmental or political unit.
With its rich soil and crisscrossing network of rivers and streams, England has been and remains a thriving agricultural economy. England became the epicenter of the global Industrial Revolution in the early 1800s, quickly rising to the top of the global industrialization rankings. Manufacturing industries in Manchester, Birmingham, and Liverpool turned raw materials into finished goods for export. London, the country's capital, became one of the world's most important cities, a hub for a global political economy. The London metropolitan area continues to be Europe's financial center and a hotbed of innovation, particularly in the fields of popular culture.
One of the most fundamental features of the English language is its diversity within a limited compass. Even England's most remote regions are accessible by car or train within a day's drive or train ride of London. Many English people identify with the regions or shires from which they are descended—for example, Yorkshire, the West Country, or the Midlands—and maintain strong ties to those regions even if they live in other parts of the country. Some differences exist, but many more, especially as England transitioned from a rural to an urban society, began to fade after 1945. The country's island location has shaped the English character, which values social harmony, social harmony, and good manners that ensure orderly relations in a densely populated landscape, among other characteristics.
During the dismantling of Britain's vast overseas empire in the mid-20th century, England suffered an identity crisis, and much attention has been paid to discussions of "Englishness"—that is, what it means to be English in a country that now has large immigrant populations from many former colonies and is far more cosmopolitan than insular. Although influenced by other cultures, English culture is distinct and difficult to define. The Lion and the Unicorn by George Orwell, a self-described "revolutionary patriot" who chronicled politics and society in the 1930s and 1940s, makes this observation.
Geographical Description of England
Except for Yorkshire and Nottinghamshire in the east, England's topography is low-lying but rarely flat. The area has many rolling hillsides, with the highest elevations in the north, north-west, and southwest. Intricate underlying structures have resulted in intricate patterns in the landscape. The oldest sedimentary rocks and some igneous rocks (found in isolated granite hills) are found in Cornwall and Devon, while the most recent alluvial soils are found in the Fens of Cambridgeshire, Lincolnshire, and Norfolk. Both the sandstone and limestone bands that separate these two regions date from prehistoric times when large sections of central and southern England were submerged under warm seas. Geological forces lifted and folded some of these rocks, forming northern England's spine. Scafell Pike, England's highest point, stands at 3,210 feet (978 metres) and is part of the world's highest mountain range. The northern mountains are mostly slate, while the southern mountains are mostly lava flows. Mountain ranges have developed from the North Downs at 965 feet (294 meters) to the Cotswolds at 1,083 feet (330 meters).
The Chiltern Hills, North Yorkshire Moors, Yorkshire and Lincolnshire Wolds, and Yorkshire and Lincolnshire Wolds were rounded into distinctive plateaus with west-facing escarpments during the Pleistocene Epoch (about 2,600,000 to 11,700 years ago). A land bridge connecting Britain to the rest of Europe was engulfed as the last glacial sheet melted. The retreating glaciers left behind gravel, sand, and glacial mud, further altering the land surface. Rain, rivers, and tides, as well as subsidence, have shaped the hills and coastline of eastern England. Limestone, gritstone, and carboniferous strata plateaus are associated with major coalfields, some visible as surface outcrops.
A great example of England's geologic complexity is its cliff structure. The chalk cliffs of Dover are made up of a series of sedimentary rocks of varying ages that start at Land's End in the far southwest and end at the Isle of Wight. The English coastline is dotted with cliffs, bays, and river estuaries that add to the overall beauty of the landscape.
England's weather is as varied as its topography. The average temperature in England, like other temperate maritime zones, is moderate, ranging from around 35 degrees Fahrenheit (2 degrees Celsius) in January to 72 degrees Fahrenheit (22 degrees Celsius) in July in the Thames river valley (32 degrees Celsius). Tacitus, the Roman historian, described it as "unpleasant" with "frequent rains and mists but no extreme cold." However, the higher elevations of England receive snow for roughly 50 days out of the year. In fact, the northwest and southwest of England are particularly "wet". These areas receive less than 30 inches (750 mm) of rain per year and are frequently subject to severe drought. Rainfall averages only 20 inches in parts of the southeast (500 mm). The weather has influenced English art and literature not only seasonally but also day-to-day and even hour-to-hour. The bumbershoot's moniker as the stereotypical English gentleman's walking stick is not accidental.
The Economy of England
In the 18th and 19th centuries, England's economy was primarily agricultural until the Industrial Revolution transformed it into a highly urbanized and industrialized region as a result of the Industrial Revolution. A result of the close proximity of coal and iron ore deposits, heavy industries (iron and steel, textiles, and shipbuilding) sprang up in the north-eastern counties, and they continue to thrive today. During the 1930s, the Great Depression and foreign competition both contributed to a decline in manufactured goods production and an increase in unemployment in the industrial north, which contributed to the Great Depression. Residents of these northern counties who were out of work were forced to relocate south to London and its environs. Because of urbanization and industrialization, the southeast has become dominated by industries such as automotive, chemical, electrical, and machine tool manufacturing. Despite the fact that population growth and urbanization significantly reduced farmland in England during the twentieth century, the geographical counties of Cornwall, Devon, Kent, Lincolnshire, Somerset, and North Yorkshire have retained a significant proportion of their agricultural land.
Another period of industrial decline occurred in the late twentieth century, during which coal mining was virtually phased out and job losses in industries such as iron and steel production, shipbuilding, and textile manufacturing were particularly severe. The decline of these industries had a disproportionately negative impact on the economies of the north and the Midlands, while the economies of the south remained relatively prosperous. By the turn of the twenty-first century, the service sector had taken over as the dominant sector of the English economy, with banking and other financial services, retail, distribution, media and entertainment, education, health care, and hotels and restaurants among the leading sectors.